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Introduction to Biological Physics for the Health and Life Sciences
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Table of Contents

I Mechanics. CHAPTER 1 Kinematics. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Distance and Displacement. 1.3 Speed and Velocity. 1.4 Acceleration. 1.5 Average Velocity or Speed. 1.6 The Acceleration Due to Gravity. 1.7 Independence of Motion in 2D. 1.8 Summary. CHAPTER 2 Force and Newton?s Laws of Motion. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 The Concept of Force. 2.3 Kinds of Force. 2.4 Newtonian Gravity. 2.5 Summary. CHAPTER 3 Motion in a Circle. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Description of Circular Motion. 3.3 Circular Velocity and Acceleration. 3.4 Centripetal Force. 3.5 Sources of Centripetal Force. 3.6 Summary. CHAPTER 4 Statics. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Equilibrium. 4.3 Torque. 4.4 The Principle of Moments. 4.5 Centre of Gravity or Centre of Mass. 4.6 Stability. 4.7 Summary. CHAPTER 5 Energy. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 What is Energy? 5.3 Work. 5.4 Kinetic Energy. 5.5 Potential Energy. 5.6 Conservative Forces. 5.7 Conservation of Total Energy. 5.8 Power. 5.9 Summary. CHAPTER 6 Momentum. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Linear Momentum. 6.3 Newton's Laws and Momentum. 6.4 Collisions. 6.5 Elastic Collisions. 6.6 Summary. CHAPTER 7 Simple Harmonic Motion. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Hooke's Law. 7.3 Simple Harmonic Motion. 7.4 The Simple Pendulum. 7.5 Summary. CHAPTER 8 Waves. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Simple Harmonic Motion &Waves. 8.3 Frequency, Wavelength, & Speed. 8.4 The Form of the Wave. 8.5 Types of Wave. 8.6 Superposition & Interference. 8.7 Beats. 8.8 Reflection. 8.9 Standing Waves. 8.10 Waves and Energy. 8.11 Complex Waveforms. 8.12 Summary. CHAPTER 9 Sound and Hearing. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Sound Waves in Media. 9.3 Pitch and Loudness. 9.4 Resonance and Sound Generation. 9.5 The Ear. 9.6 The Doppler Effect. 9.7 Summary. II BulkMaterials. CHAPTER 10 Elasticity: Stress and Strain. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Tension and Compression. 10.3 Shear Stress and Strain. 10.4 Bulk Stress and Strain. 10.5 Elasticity. 10.6 Summary. CHAPTER 11 Pressure. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Pressure. 11.3 Density. 11.4 Pascal?s Principle. 11.5 Measurement of Pressure. 11.6 Pressure and the Human Body. 11.7 Summary. CHAPTER 12 Buoyancy. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 The Buoyant Force. 12.3 Summary. CHAPTER 13 Surface Tension and Capillarity. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Surface Tension. 13.3 Capillarity. 13.4 Surfactants and the Lung. 13.5 Summary. CHAPTER 14 Fluid Dynamics of Non-viscous Fluids. 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Definitions of Some Key Terms. 14.3 The Equation of Continuity. 14.4 Bernoulli's Equation. 14.5 Summary. CHAPTER 15 Fluid Dynamics of Viscous Fluids. 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Viscosity. 15.3 Turbulence. 15.4 Summary. CHAPTER 16 Molecular Transport Phenomena. 16.1 Introduction. 16.2 Diffusion. 16.3 Osmosis. 16.4 Applications to Biological Systems. 16.5 Summary. III Thermodynamics. CHAPTER 17 Temperature and the Zeroth Law. 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Thermal Equilibrium. 17.3 Measuring Temperature. 17.4 Thermal Expansion of Materials. 17.5 Summary. CHAPTER 18 Ideal Gases. 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 The Gas Laws. 18.3 Biological Applications. 18.4 Kinetic Theory of Gases. 18.5 Summary. CHAPTER 19 Phase and Temperature Change. 19.1 Introduction. 19.2 Phase Changes. 19.3 Temperature Changes. 19.4 Energy Conservation. 19.5 L and c Values for Water. 19.6 Summary. CHAPTER 20 Water Vapour and the Atmosphere. 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Mixtures of Water Vapour and Air. 20.3 Partial Pressure, Moisture Content. 20.4 Atmospheric Properties. 20.5 Psychrometry. 20.6 Applications. 20.7 Summary. CHAPTER 21 Heat Transfer. 21.1 Introduction. 21.2 Conduction. 21.3 Convection. 21.4 Radiation. 21.5 Combined Transfer Processes. 21.6 Summary. CHAPTER 22 Thermodynamics and the Body. 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 The First Law. 22.3 Energy and the Body. 22.4 Thermoregulation. 22.5 Temperature and Health. 22.6 Summary. IV Electricity and DC Circuits. CHAPTER 23 Static Electricity. 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 Charge. 23.3 Conductors and Insulators. 23.4 Charging of Objects. 23.5 Polarization. 23.6 Summary. CHAPTER 24 Electric Force and Electric Field. 24.1 Introduction. 24.2 Coulomb's Law. 24.3 Superposition of Electric Forces. 24.4 Inverse Square Laws. 24.5 The Electric Field. 24.6 Electric Field Diagrams. 24.7 Superposition of Electric Fields. 24.8 Summary. CHAPTER 25 Electrical Potential and Energy. 25.1 Introduction. 25.2 Electrical Potential Energy. 25.3 Electrical Potential. 25.4 Electrical Potential and Work. 25.5 Equipotential and Field Lines . 25.6 Electrical and External Forces. 25.7 The Heart and ECG. 25.8 Summary. CHAPTER 26 Capacitance. 26.1 Introduction. 26.2 The Capacitor. 26.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor. 26.4 Capacitors in Series and Parallel. 26.5 The Dielectric in a Capacitor. 26.6 Summary. CHAPTER 27 Direct Currents and DC Circuits. 27.1 Introduction. 27.2 Electric Current. 27.3 Current Flow and Drift Velocity. 27.4 Direct Versus Alternating Current. 27.5 Circuits and Circuit Diagrams. 27.6 Power Sources. 27.7 Resistance and Ohm's Law. 27.8 Resistors and Resistivity. 27.9 Wires. 27.10 Kirchhoff?s Laws. 27.11 Resistors in Series and Parallel. 27.12 Power Dissipation. 27.13 Electric Shock Hazards. 27.14 Alternate Energy Units. 27.15 Summary. CHAPTER 28 Time Behaviour of RC Circuits. 28.1 Introduction. 28.2 The RC Circuit. 28.3 Discharging RC Circuit. 28.4 Charging RC Circuit. 28.5 Summary. V Optics. CHAPTER 29 The Nature of Light. 29.1 Introduction. 29.2 Electromagnetic Waves. 29.3 Reflection. 29.4 Refraction. 29.5 Dispersion. 29.6 Summary. CHAPTER 30 Geometric Optics. 30.1 Introduction. 30.2 Ray Diagrams. 30.3 Plane Mirrors. 30.4 Spherical Mirrors. 30.5 Magnification. 30.6 Lenses. 30.7 Summary. CHAPTER 31 The Eye and Vision. 31.1 Introduction. 31.2 The Parts of the Eye. 31.3 Emmetropia (Normal Vision). 31.4 Myopia. 31.5 Hypermetropia (or Hyperopia). 31.6 Presbyopia. 31.7 Astigmatism. 31.8 Alternative Structure & Placement. 31.9 Colour Vision. 31.10 Summary. CHAPTER 32 Wave Optics. 32.1 Introduction. 32.2 Superposition and Interference. 32.3 Huygens' Principle. 32.4 Diffraction. 32.5 Young?s Double Slit Experiment. 32.6 Single Slit Diffraction. 32.7 Diffraction Gratings. 32.8 Circular Apertures and Diffraction. 32.9 Visual Acuity. 32.10 Thin-Film Interference. 32.11 Summary. VI Radiation and Health. CHAPTER 33 Atoms and Atomic Physics. 33.1 Introduction. 33.2 Parts of the Atom. 33.3 Orbitals and Energy Levels. 33.4 The Boehr Model of the Atom. 33.5 Multi-Electron Atoms. 33.6 Quantum Mechanics. 33.7 Summary. CHAPTER 34 The Nucleus and Nuclear Physics. 34.1 Introduction. 34.2 Protons and Neutrons. 34.3 Nuclei and Isotopes. 34.4 Energy and Mass Units. 34.5 Nuclear Forces. 34.6 Nuclear Decay and Stability. 34.7 Summary. CHAPTER 35 Production of Ionizing Radiation. 35.1 Introduction. 35.2 Nuclear Decay Processes. 35.3 Activity and Half-Life. 35.4 X-ray Production. 35.5 Other Sources of Radiation. 35.6 Summary. CHAPTER 36 Interactions of Ionizing Radiation. 36.1 Introduction. 36.2 Attenuation and Cross Section. 36.3 X-rays and Gamma Radiation. 36.4 Particles. 36.5 Detection of Ionizing Radiation. 36.6 Summary. CHAPTER 37 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 37.1 Introduction. 37.2 Mechanisms of Cell Damage. 37.3 Dose and Dose Equivalent. 37.4 Types of Effect. 37.5 Medical Effects and Risk. 37.6 UV. 37.7 Summary. CHAPTER 38 Medical Imaging. 38.1 Introduction. 38.2 X-ray Imaging. 38.3 CT Scan. 38.4 PET scan. 38.5 Gamma camera and SPECT. 38.6 Ultrasound Sonography. 38.7 Diagnostic Procedures: Dose. 38.8 Summary. CHAPTER 39 Magnetism and MRI. 39.1 Introduction. 39.2 Magnetism. 39.3 A Brief Outline of MRI. 39.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. 39.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 39.6 Summary. VII Appendices. CHAPTER A Physical Constants. A.1 High Precision Mass Values. A.2 Useful Constants. CHAPTER B Basic Maths and Science Skills. B.1 Measurement and Units. B.2 Basic Algebra. B.3 Exponentials and Logarithms. B.4 Geometry. B.5 Trigonometric Functions. B.6 Vectors.

About the Author

Dr Terry F. Scott, Department of Physics, University of Otago, New Zealand
Research interests include many body theory, Bose Einstein condensation and Physics Education.

Assisted by: Kirsten Franklin, Paul Muir, Lara Wilcocks, Paul Yates and The Staff of the Department of Physics, University of Otago, New Zealand.

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