Introduction to Geography
People, Places, and Environment: International Edition
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|Format: ||Paperback, 624 pages, 5th edition Edition|
|Published In: ||United States, 15 October 2010|
In today's world, what happens in places depends more and more on what happens among places. Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment, Fifth Edition demonstrates that fact-and shows that we can understand mapped patterns only if we recognize the movement that creates and continuously rearranges those patterns. The authors discuss what happens in one set of geographic processes and how that process affects others. For example, what happens in economic systems affects environmental conditions; what happens to climate affects political dynamics. This text will introduce you to the major tools, techniques, and methodological approaches of the discipline of geography.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Geography: A Look Ahead1.1 What is Geography?1.1.1 The Development of Geography1.2 Contemporary Approaches in Geography1.2.1 Area Analysis1.2.2 Spatial Analysis1.2.3 Geographic Systems Analysis1.2.4 Human-Environmental Interaction1.3 Describing Earth1.3.1 The Geographic Grid1.3.2 Communicating Geographic Information: Maps1.3.3 Geographic Information Technology1.3.4 GIS: A Type of Database Software1.3.5 Integration of Information TechnologiesConnections: Thematic MappingConnections: Online Mapping2. Weather and Climate2.1 Energy and Weather2.1.1 Incoming Solar Radiation2.1.2 Storage of Heat in Land and Water2.1.3 Heat Transfer Between the Atmosphere and Earth2.1.4 Heat Exchange and Atmospheric Circulation2.2 Precipitation2.2.1 Condensation2.2.2 Causes of Precipitation2.3 Circulation patterns2.3.1 Pressure and Winds2.3.2 Global Atmospheric Circulation2.3.3 Seasonal Variations in Global Circulation2.3.4 Ocean Circulation Patterns2.3.5 Storms: Regional-Scale Circulation Patterns2.3.6 A Snapshot of Global Circulation and Weather2.4 Climate2.4.1 Air Temperature2.4.2 Precipitation2.5 Classifying Climate2.6 Earth's Climate Regions2.6.1 Humid Low-Latitude Tropical Climates2.6.2 Dry Climates2.6.3 Warm Midlatitude Climates2.6.4 Cold Midlatitude Climates2.6.5 Polar Climates2.7 Climate Change2.7.1 Climatic Change Over Geologic Time2.7.2 Possible Causes of Climatic Variation2.7.3 Global WarmingConnections: Climates in Urban AreasGlobal and Local: El Nino/ La NinaRapid change: Assessment of Global Warming and Its Impacts3. Landforms3.1 Plate Tectonics3.1.1 Earth's Moving Crust3.1.2 Types of Boundaries Between Plates3.1.3 Rock Formation3.2 Slopes and Streams3.2.1 Weathering3.2.2 Moving Weathered Material3.3 Ice, Wind and Waves3.3.1 Glaciers3.3.2 Impact of Past Glaciations3.3.3 Effects of Wind on Landforms3.3.4 Coastal Erosion3.4 The Dynamic Earth3.4.1 Rates of Landform Change3.4.2 Environmental HazardsGlobal and Local: New Orleans: Rising Sea level, Hurricanes and Coastal VulnerabilityConnections: Wealth and Natural Hazards4. Biogeochemical Cycles and the Biosphere4.1 Biogeochemical Cycles4.1.1 The Hydrologic Cycle4.1.2 Water Budgets4.1.3 Vegetation and the Hydrologic Cycle4.2 Carbon, Oxygen and Nutrient Flows in the Biosphere4.2.1 The Carbon and Oxygen Cycles4.2.2 The Global Carbon Budget4.2.3 Managing the carbon cycle4.2.4 Deforestation, reforestation, and carbon offsets4.3 Soil4.3.1 Soil Formation4.3.2 Soil Horizons4.3.3 Thousands of Soils4.3.4 Climate, Vegetation, Soil and the Landscape4.3.5 Soil Problems4.3.6 Soil Fertility: Natural and Synthetic4.4 Ecosystems4.4.1 Ecosystem Processes4.4.2 Biodiversity4.5 Biomes: Global Patterns in the Biosphere4.5.1 Forest Biomes4.5.2 Savanna, Scrubland, and Open Woodland Biomes4.5.3 Midlatitude Grassland Biome4.5.4 Desert Biome4.5.5 Tundra Biome4.5.6 Natural and Human Effects on the BiosphereGlobal and Local: Carbon Emission OffsetsConnections: Geography, Geographic Information Systems and the Global Carbon BudgetConnections: Human-Dominated SystemsConnections: Fire and Forest Management in the Western United States5. Population and Migration5.1 The Distribution and Density of Human Settlement5.1.1 Population Density5.2 World Population Dynamics5.2.1 Population Projections5.2.2 Regional Variation in Population Growth5.2.3 The Age Structure of the Population5.2.4 The Demographic Transition5.2.5 Factors Affecting Fertility Rates5.2.6 Changes in World Death Rates5.2.7 Is Earth Overpopulated?5.3 Other Significant Demographic Patterns5.3.1 Sex Ratios in National Populations5.3.2 The Aging Human Population5.4 Migration5.4.1 Prehistoric Human Migrations5.4.2 The Migrations of Peoples Since 15005.5 Migration Today5.5.1 Forced Migration5.5.2 The Impact of International Migration5.5.3 Migration to Europe5.5.4 Migrations of Asians5.5.5 Migrations to the United States and Canada5.6 Effects of EmigrationConnections: Environmental Disturbance and DiseaseRapid change: Demographic CollapseConnections: The Economics of AgingGlobal and Local: The East-West Exchange of DiseaseConnections: Race, Culture, and the U.S. Census6. Cultural Geography6.1 Cultural Evolution Contrasts with Cultural Diffusion6.1.1 Theories of Cultural Evolution6.1.2 Cultures and Environments6.1.3 Cultural Diffusion6.2 Identity and Behavioral Geography6.2.1 Grouping Humans by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender6.2.2 Behavioral Geography6.3 Culture Regions6.3.1 Visible Clues to Culture Areas6.3.2 Forces that stabilize the pattern of culture regions6.3.3 Trade and Cultural Diffusion6.3.4 World Trade and Cultural Diffusion Today6.3.5 The Acceleration of Diffusion6.3.6 The Challenge of Change6.4 The Global Diffusion of European Culture6.4.1 Europe's Voyages of Contact 6.4.2 Economic Growth Increased Europe's Power6.4.3 Cultural Imperialism6.4.4 Westernization Today6.4.5 America's Role6.5 Cultural Preservation and HybridityGlobal and Local: LahicRapid Change: Who Killed the Record Store?Global and Local: Sworn Virgins of the BalkansConnections: Is Latin America a Region? How Did It Get Its Name?Global and Local: The Diffusion of News7. The Geography of Languages and Religions7.1 Defining Languages and Language Regions7.1.1 Linguistic Geography7.1.2 The World's Major Languages7.2 The Development and Diffusion of Languages7.2.1 The Indo-European Language Family7.2.2 Other Language Families7.2.3 The Geography of Writing7.2.4 Toponymy: Language on the Landscape7.3 Linguistic Differentiation in the Modern World7.3.1 National Languages7.4 The Teachings, Origin, and Diffusion of the World's Major Religions7.4.1 Judaism7.4.2 Christianity7.4.3 Islam7.4.4 Hinduism and Sikhism7.4.5 Buddhism7.4.6 Other Eastern Religions7.4.7 Animism and Shamanism7.5 The Political and Social Impact of the Geography of Religion7.5.1 Religion and politics7.5.2 Indirect Religious Influences on Government7.5.3 Religion and Dietary Habits7.5.4 Religion and Economics7.5.5 Religions, Science, and the EnvironmentRapid Change: The Rise of EnglishGlobal and Local: Language in New StatesConnections: Religious Fundamentalism and Political TerrorismConnections: Liberation TheologyConnections: Religious Tensions on the Indian Subcontinent8. The Human Food Supply8.1 Food Supplies Over the Past 200 Years8.1.1 New Crops and Cropland8.1.2 Transportation and Storage8.1.3 Other Technological Advances8.1.4 The Green Revolution8.2 Agriculture Today8.2.1 Subsistence Farming Contrasts with Commercial Farming8.2.2 Types of Agriculture8.2.3 What Determines Agricultural Productivity?8.3 Livestock Around the World8.3.1 The Direct and Indirect Consumption of Grain8.3.2 Problems Associated with Animal Production8.3.3 Dairy Farming and the Principle of Value Added8.4 Aquatic Food Supplies8.4.1 Traditional Fisheries8.4.2 Modern Fishing8.5 Hunger and Food Security8.5.1 Problems in Increasing Food Production8.5.2 Rich Countries Subsidize Production and Export of Food8.5.3 Why Do Some Rich Countries Subsidize Agriculture?8.6 Food Supplies in the Future8.6.1 The Importance of Crop Diversity8.6.2 The Scientific Revolution in Agriculture Continues8.6.3 Resistance to Biotechnology8.6.4 Climate Change and Food Security8.6.5 Sustainable AgricultureConnections: The Economic Geography of Food and Land: Von Thunen's "Isolated City" Model Global and local: New Uses for Old CropsRapid Change: Goodbye to the Banana?Connections: Soybeans in Brazil 9. Earth's Resources and Environmental Protection9.1 What is a Natural Resource?9.1.1 Characteristics of Resources9.1.2 Substitutability9.1.3 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources9.2 Geologic and Energy Resources9.2.1 Mineral Resources9.2.2 Variations in Mineral Use9.2.3 Depletion and Substitution9.2.4 Disposal and Recycling of Solid Waste9.2.5 Energy Resources9.2.6 Energy from Fossil Fuels9.2.7 Nuclear and Renewable Energy Resources9.3 Air and Water Resources9.3.1 Air Pollution9.3.2 Water Resources9.3.3 Water Pollution9.3.4 Reducing Air and Water Pollution9.4 Forests9.4.1 Forests as Fiber Resources9.4.2 Other Important Forest Uses9.4.3 Balancing Competing InterestsRapid Change: Peak OilConnections: Meat Production and Water Pollution 10. Cities and Urbanization10.1 Urban Functions10.1.1 The Three Sectors of an Economy10.1.2 The Economic Bases of Cities10.2 The Locations of Cities10.2.1 Central Place Theory10.2.2 Urban Hierarchies10.2.3 The Patterns of Urban Hierarchies10.3 World Urbanization10.3.1 The Rise of Urbanized Societies10.3.2 Urbanization Today10.3.3 Government Policies to Reduce the Pull of Urban Life10.3.4 Improving Rural Life10.3.5 The Economic Vitality of Cities10.4 The Internal Geography of Cities10.4.1 Economic Forces10.4.2 Social Factors in Residential Clustering10.4.3 Government's Role10.4.4 Other Urban Models in Diverse Cultures10.5 Cities and Suburbs in the United States10.5.1 The Growth of Suburbs10.5.2 The Social Costs of Suburbs10.5.3 Suburbs as Sites of Change10.5.4 Developments in the Central City10.5.5 Efforts to Redistribute Jobs and Housing10.5.6 Governing Metropolitan Regions10.6 Cities and the EnvironmentRapid Change: Urbanizing ChinaConnections: Public Space and Private PropertyRapid Change: Controlling Sprawl in Metropolitan Portland, Oregon11. A World of States11.1 The Development of the Nation-State Idea11.1.1 The Idea of the Nation 11.1.2 The Nation-State Idea11.1.3 The European Nation-States11.1.4 The Collapse of Empires11.1.5 British Empire to Commonwealth11.1.6 The French Empire11.1.7 The Successor States of the Ottoman Empire11.2 A Changing World Political Map11.2.1 Centripetal Forces11.2.2 Centrifugal Forces11.2.3 Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide11.3 The Internal Organization of States11.3.1 Types of Regimes11.3.2 The Shapes of States11.3.3 International Borders11.3.4 Territorial Subdivision and Systems of Representation11.3.5 Districting and Redistricting11.3.6 Individual Rights and Freedoms11.4 Relations Among States11.4.1 Patterns of Cooperation11.4.2 Geographies of Conflict 11.4.3 Jurisdiction over Earth's Open Spaces11.4.4 Globalization's ChallengeRapid Change: GeopoliticsConnections: NigeriaRapid Change: Continuous Redistricting and Gerrymandering in the United StatesGlobal and Local: U.S. Border Security12. Paths to Economic Growth12.1 Analyzing and Comparing Countries' Economies12.1.1 Measures of Gross Product and Their Limitations12.1.2 Gross Domestic Product and the environment12.1.3 The Gross National Product and the Quality of Life12.1.4 Preindustrial, Industrial, and Postindustrial Societies12.1.5 Why Some Countries Are Rich and Some Countries Are Poor12.2 The Geography of Manufacturing12.2.1 Locational Determinants for Manufacturing Today12.2.2 Locational Determinants Migrate12.2.3 Manufacturing in the United States12.2.4 The Economy of Japan12.2.5 Technology and the Future Geography of Manufacturing12.3 National Economic-Geographic Policies12.3.1 Political Economy12.3.2 Wealth Variations within States12.3.3 How Do Governments Distribute Economic Activities?12.3.4 National Transportation Infrastructures12.4 National Trade Policies12.4.1 The Import-Substitution Method of Growth12.4.2 Export-Led Economic Growth12.5 The Formation of the Global Economy12.5.1 Transnational Investment and Production12.5.2 The International Tertiary Sector12.5.3 The Geography of Foreign Direct Investment12.5.4 The Globalization of Finance and Risk12.5.5 International Regulation of the Global EconomyRapid Change: Recession and the Crisis for U.S. AutomakersConnections: Socks and PoliticsGlobal and Local: India's New RoadsGlobal and Local: TourismRapid Change: The Financial CrisisRapid Change: The Rise of the BRIC and the G-2013. Global Challenges and the Scale of Response 13.1 Protecting the Global Environment13.1.1 Energy Consumption13.1.2 Energy Efficiency Trends13.1.3 Development, Pollution and the Quality of Life13.1.4 International Equity in Environmental Management13.2 Global Security and Human Rights 13.2.1 Interests Versus Principles13.2.2 Human Rights and National Sovereignty13.2.3 Humanitarian Intervention13.2.4 Kosovo and Iraq: Signs of the Times?13.2 Regional Cooperation13.2.1 European Integration13.2.2 NAFTA and the Americas13.2.3 Expanding Western Hemisphere Free Trade13.2.4 Other Forms of Regional Cooperation13.3 Human Development13.3.1 Measuring Development13.3.2 The Role of the Environment13.3.3. Millennium Development Goals13.4 Geography and Thinking GloballyConnections: Water PrivatizationConnections: Malaria and DDTGlobal and Local: Living with LandminesConnections: The Importance of Water for Human Development
About the Author
Carl T. Dahlman earned degrees in sociology, music, and urban affairs before receiving his Ph.D. in geography from the University of Kentucky in 2001. He is an Associate Professor of Geography at Miami University where his teaching focuses on political geography, migration and mobility, and globalization. His current research includes the role of European integration in the geopolitics of Southeastern Europe. He enjoys photography and hunting for fossils with his son.William H. Renwick earned a B.A. from Rhode Island College in 1973 and a Ph.D. in geography from Clark University in 1979. He has taught at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Rutgers University, and is currently Associate Professor of Geography at Miami University. A physical geographer with interests in geomorphology and environmental issues, his research focuses on impacts of land-use change on rivers and lakes, particularly in agricultural landscapes in the Midwest. When time permits, he studies these environments from the seat of a wooden canoe.Edward F. Bergman was born in Wisconsin and received a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Washington. He taught at the City University of New York and widely in Europe, South America and South Africa. Now retired as a professor emeritus, he still travels and occasionally lectures and advises museums on the writing of labels for exhibits.
26.5 x 22.7 x 2.1 centimetres (1.13 kg) |