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An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering 1.1 Geotechnical Engineering 1.2 The Unique Nature of Soil and Rock Materials 1.3 Scope of This Book 1.4 Historical Development of Geotechnical Engineering 1.5 Suggested Approach to the Study of Geotechnical Engineering 1.6 Notes on Symbols and Units 1.7 Some Comments on How to Study in General Problems Chapter 2 Index and Classification Properties of Soils 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Basic Definitions and Phase Relations for Soils 2.3 Solution of Phase Problems 2.3.1 Submerged or Buoyant Density 2.3.2 Unit Weight and Specific Gravity 2.4 Soil Texture 2.5 Grain Size and Grain Size Distribution 2.6 Particle Shape 2.7 Atterberg Limits 2.7.1 Cone Liquid Limit 2.7.2 One Point Liquid Limit Test 2.7.3 Additional Comments on the Atterberg Limits 2.8 Introduction To Soil Classification 2.9 Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) 2.9.1 Visual-Manual Classification of Soils 2.9.2 What Else Can We Get From The LI-PI Chart? 2.9.3 Limitations of the USCS 2.10 AASHTO Soil Classification System Problems Chapter 3 Geology, Landforms, and the Origin of Geo-Materials 3.1 Importance of Geology to Geotechnical Engineering 3.1.1 Geology 3.1.2 Geomorphology 3.1.3 Engineering Geology 3.2 The Earth, Minerals, Rocks, and Rock Structure 3.2.1 The Earth 3.2.2 Minerals 3.2.3. Rocks 3.2.4. Rock Structure 3.3 Geologic Processes and Landforms 3.3.1 Geologic Processes and the Origin of Earthen Materials 3.3.2 Weathering 3.3.3. Gravity Processes 3.3.4. Surface Water Processes 3.3.5 Ice Processes and Glaciation 3.3.6 Wind Processes 3.3.7 Volcanic Processes 3.3.8 Groundwater Processes 3.3.9 Tectonic Processes 3.3.10 Plutonic Processes 3.4 Sources of Geologic Information Problems Chapter 4 Clay Minerals, Soil and Rock Structures, and Rock Classification 4.1Introduction 4.2 Products of Weathering 4.3 Clay Minerals 4.3.1 The 1:1 Clay Minerals 4.3.2 The 2:1 Clay Minerals 4.3.3 Other Clay Minerals 4.4 Identification of Clay Minerals And Activity 4.5 Specific Surface 4.6 Interaction between Water and Clay Minerals 4.6.1 Hydration of Clay Minerals and the Diffuse Double Layer 4.6.2 Exchangeable Cations and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) 4.7 Interaction of Clay Particles 4.8 Soil Structure and Fabric of Fine Grained Soils 4.8.1 Fabrics of Fine Grained Soils 4.8.2 Importance of Microfabric and Macrofabric; Description Criteria 4.9 Granular Soil Fabrics 4.10 Soil Profiles, Soil Horizons, and Soil Taxonomy 4.11 Special Soil Deposits 4.11.1 Organic soils, peats, and muskeg 4.11.2 Marine Soils 4.11.3 Waste Materials and Contaminated Sites 4.12 Transitional Materials: Hard Soils vs. Soft Rocks 4.13 Properties, Macrostructure, and Classification of Rock Masses 4.13.1 Properties of Rock Masses 4.13.2 Discontinuities in Rock 4.13.3 Rock Mass Classification Systems Problems Chapter 5 Compaction and Stabilization of Soils 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Compaction and Densification 5.3 Theory of Compaction for Fine-Grained Soils 5.3.1 Process of Compaction 5.3.2 Typical Values; Degree of Saturation 5.3.3 Effect of Soil Type and Method of Compaction 5.4 Structure of Compacted Fine-Grained Soils 5.5 Compaction of Granular Soils 5.5.1 Relative or Index Density 5.5.2 Densification of Granular Deposits. 5.5.3 Rock Fills 5.6 Field Compaction Equipment and Procedures 5.6.1 Compaction of Fine-Grained Soils 5.6.2 Compaction of Granular Materials 5.6.3 Compaction Equipment Summary 5.6.4 Compaction of Rockfill 5.7 Specifications and Compaction Control 5.7.1 Specifications 5.7.2 Compaction Control Tests 5.7.3 Problems with Compaction Control Tests 5.7.4 Most Efficient Compaction 5.7.5Overcompaction 5.7.6 Rockfill QA/QC 5.7.7 Compaction in Trenches 5.8 Estimating Performance of Compacted Soils Problems Chapter 6 Hydrostatic Water in Soils and Rocks 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Capillarity 6.2.1 Capillary Rise and Capillary Pressures in Soils 6.2.2 Measurement of Capillarity; Soil-Water Characteristic Curve 6.2.3 Other Capillary Phenomena 6.3 Groundwater Table and the Vadose Zone 6.3.1 Definition 6.3.2 Field Determination 6.4 Shrinkage Phenomena in Soils 6.4.1 Capillary Tube Analogy 6.4.2 Shrinkage Limit Test 6.4.3 Shrinkage Properties of Compacted Clays 6.5 Expansive Soils and Rocks 6.5.1 Physical-Chemical Aspects 6.5.2 Identification and Prediction 6.5.3 Expansive Properties of Compacted Clays 6.5.4 Swelling Rocks 6.6 Engineering Significance of Shrinkage and Swelling 6.7 Collapsible Soils and Subsidence 6.8 Frost Action 6.8.1 Terminology, Conditions, and Mechanisms of Frost Action 6.8.2 Prediction and Identification of Frost Susceptible Soils 6.8.3 Engineering Significance of Frozen Ground 6.9 Intergranular or Effective Stress 6.10 Vertical Stress Profiles 6.11 Relationship between Horizontal and Vertical Stresses Problems Chapter 7 Fluid Flow in Soils and Rock 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 7.3 Darcy's Law for Flow through Porous Media 7.4 Measurement of Permeability or Hydraulic Conductivity 7.4.1 Laboratory and Field Hydraulic Conductivity Tests 7.4.2 Factors Affecting Laboratory and Field Determination of K 7.4.3 Empirical Relationships and Typical Values of K 7.5 Heads and One-Dimensional Flow 7.6 Seepage Forces, Quicksand, and Liquefaction 7.6.1 Seepage Forces, Critical Gradient, and Quicksand 7.6.2 Quicksand Tank 7.6.3 Liquefaction 7.7 Seepage and Flow Nets: Two-Dimensional Flow 7.7.1 Flow Nets 7.7.2 Quantity of Flow, Uplift Pressures, and Exit Gradients 7.7.3 Other Solutions to Seepage Problems 7.7.4 Anisotropic and Layered Flow 7.8 Seepage towards Wells 7.9 Seepage through Dams and Embankments 7.10 Control of Seepage and Filters 7.10.1 Basic Filtration Principles 7.10.2 Design of Graded Granular Filters 7.10.3 Geotextile Filter Design Concepts 7.10.4 FHWA Filter Design Procedure Problems Chapter 8 Compressibility of Soil and Rock 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Components of Settlement 8.3 Compressibility of Soils 8.4 One-Dimensional Consolidation Testing 8.5 Preconsolidation Pressure and Stress History 8.5.1 Normal Consolidation, Overconsolidation, and Preconsolidation Pressure 8.5.2 Determining the Preconsolidation Pressure 8.5.3 Stress History and Preconsolidation Pressure 8.6 Consolidation Behavior of Natural and Compacted Soils 8.7 Settlement Calculations 8.7.1 Consolidation Settlement of Normally Consolidated Soils 8.7.2 Consolidation Settlement of Overconsolidated Soils 8.7.3 Determining Cr and Cre 8.8 Tangent Modulus Method 8.9 Factors Affecting the Determination of scP 8.10 Prediction of Field Consolidation Curves 8.11 Soil Profiles 8.12 Approximate Methods and Typical Values of Compression Indices 8.13 Compressibility of Rock and Transitional Materials 8.14 In Situ Determination f Compressibility Problems Chapter 9 Time Rate of Consolidation 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The Consolidation Process 9.3 Terzaghi's One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory 9.3.1 Classic Solution for the Terzaghi Consolidation Equation 9.3.2 Finite Difference Solution for the Terzaghi Consolidation Equation 9.4 Determination of the Coefficient of Consolidation Cv 9.4.1 Casagrande's Logarithm of Time Fitting Method 9.4.2 Taylor's Square Root of Time Fitting Method 9.5 Determination of the Coefficient Of Permeability 9.6 Typical Values of the Coefficient Of Consolidation, Cv 9.7 In Situ Determination of Consolidation Properties 9.8 Evaluation of Secondary Settlement Problems Chapter 10 Stress Distribution and Settlement Analysis 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Settlement Analysis of Shallow Foundations 10.2.1 Components of Settlement 10.2.2 Steps in Settlement Analysis 10.3 Stress Distribution 10.4 Immediate Settlement 10.5 Vertical Effective Overburden and Preconsolidation Stress Profiles 10.6 Settlement Analysis Examples Problems Chapter 11 The Mohr Circle, Failure Theories, and Strength Testing of Soil And Rocks 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Stress at a Point 11.3 Stress-Strain Relationships and Failure Criteria 11.4 The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion 11.4.1 Mohr Failure Theory 11.4.2 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion 11.4.3 Obliquity Relations 11.4.4 Failure Criteria for Rock 11.5 Laboratory Tests for the Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks 11.5.1 Direct Shear Test 11.5.2 Triaxial Test 11.5.3 Special Laboratory Soils Tests 11.5.4 Laboratory Tests for Rock Strength 11.6 In Situ Tests for the Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks 11.6.1 Insitu Tests for Shear Strength of Soils 11.6.2 Field Tests for Modulus and Strength of Rocks Problems Chapter 12 An Introduction to Shear Strength of Soils and Rock 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Angle of Repose of Sands 12.3 Behavior of Saturated Sands during Drained Shear 12.4 Effect of Void Ratio and Confining Pressure on Volume Change 12.5 Factors that Affect the Shear Strength of Sands 12.6 Shear Strength of Sands Using In Situ Tests 12.6.1 SPT 12.6.2 CPT 12.6.3 DMT 12.7 The Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest for Sands 12.8 Behavior of Saturated Cohesive Soils during Shear 12.9 Consolidated-Drained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics 12.9.1 Consolidated-Drained (CD) Test Behavior 12.9.2 Typical Values of Drained Strength Parameters for Saturated 12.9.3 Use of CD Strength in Engineering Practice 12.10 Consolidated-Undrained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics 12.10.1 Consolidated-Undrained (CU) Test Behavior 12.10.2 Typical Value of the Undrained Strength Parameters 12.10.3 Use of CU Strength In Engineering Practice 12.11 Unconsolidated-Undrained Stress-Deformation and Strength Characteristics 12.11.1 Unconsolidated-Undrained (UU) Test Behavior 12.11.2 Unconfined Compression Test 12.11.3 Typical Values of UU and UCC Strengths 12.11.4 Other Ways to Determine the Undrained Shear Strength 12.11.5 Use of UU Strength in Engineering Practice 12.12 Sensitivity 12.13 The Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest for Clays 12.14 Strength of Compacted Clays 12.15 Strength of Rocks and Transitional Materials 12.16 Multistage Testing 12.17 Introduction to Pore Pressure Parameters Problems Chapter 13 Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Stress Paths 13.3 Pore Pressure Parameters for Different Stress Paths 13.4 Stress Paths during Undrained Loading - Normally and Lightly Overconsolidated Clays 13.5 Stress Paths during Undrained Loading - Heavily Overconsolidated Clays 13.6 Applications of Stress Paths to Engineering Practice 13.7 Critical State Soil Mechanics 13.8 Modulus and Constitutive Models for Soils 13.8.1 Modulus of Soils 13.8.2 Constitutive Relations 13.8.3 Soil Constitutive Modeling 13.8.4 Failure Criteria for Soils 13.8.5 Classes of Constitutive Models for Soils 13.8.6 The Hyperbolic (Duncan-Chang) Model 13.9 Fundamental Basis of the Drained Strength of Sands 13.9.1 Basics of Frictional Shear Strength 13.9.2 Stress-Dilatancy and Energy Corrections 13.9.3 Curvature of the Mohr Failure Envelope 13.10 Behavior of Saturated Sands in Undrained Shear 13.10.1 Consolidated-Undrained Behavior 13.10.2 Using CD Tests to Predict CU Results 13.10.3 Unconsolidated-Undrained Behavior 13.10.4 Strain Rate Effects in Sands 13.11Plane Strain Behavior of Sands 13.12 Residual Strength of Soils 13.12.1 Drained Residual Shear Strength of Clays 13.12.2 Residual Shear Strength of Sands 13.13 Stress-Deformation and Shear Strength of Clays: Special Topics 13.13.1 Definition of Failure in CU Effective Stress Tests 13.13.2 Hvorslev Strength Parameters 13.13.3 The tF/scVo Ratio, Stress History, and Jurgenson-Rutledge Hypothesis 13.13.4 Consolidation Methods to Overcome Sample Disturbance 13.13.5 Anisotropy 13.13.6 Plane Strain Strength of Clays 13.13.7 Strain Rate Effects 13.14 Strength of Unsaturated Soils 13.14.1Matric Suction in Unsaturated Soils 13.14.2 The Soil-Water Characteristic Curve 13.14.3 The Mohr-Coulomb Failure Envelope for Unsaturated Soils 13.14.4 Shear Strength Measurement in Unsaturated Soils 13.15 Properties of Soils under Dynamic Loading 13.15.1 Stress-Strain Response of Cyclically Loaded Soils 13.15.2 Measurement of Dynamic Soil Properties 13.15.3 Empirical Estimates of Gmax, Modulus Reduction, and Damping 13.15.4 Strength of Dynamically Loaded Soils 13.16 Failure Theories for Rock Problems

About the Author

Bob Holtz, PhD, PE, D.GE, has degrees from Minnesota and Northwestern, and he attended the Special Program in Soil Mechanics at Harvard under Professor A. Casagrande. Before coming to the UW in 1988, he was on the faculty at Purdue and Cal State-Sacramento. He has worked for the California Dept. of Water Resources, Swedish Geotechnical Institute, NRC-Canada, and as a consulting engineer in Chicago, Paris, and Milano. His research interests and publications are mostly on geosynthetics, soil improvement, foundations, and soil properties. He is author, co-author, or editor of 23 books and book chapters, as well as more than 270 technical papers, discussions, reviews, and major reports. Professor Holtz is a Distinguished Member of ASCE, was President of the ASCE Geo-Institute 2000-1, and currently serves as the International Secretary for the Geo-Institute. He is a Member Emeritus of TRB Committee on Soil and Rock Properties, a Past President of North American Geosynthetics Society; and a member of several other professional and technical organizations. He has taught numerous short courses and given many presentations at seminars and conferences, both in the U.S. and abroad. In 2010 he was named the 46th Karl Terzaghi Lecturer, which has been presented at several US venues and in Brazil, China, and Canada. In 2008, he was named the Puget Sound Academic Engineer of the Year. Throughout his academic career, Professor Holtz has had an active consulting practice, involving geosynthetics, foundations, soil reinforcing, soil improvement, properties and containment of nuclear wastes, slope stability and landslides, investigation of failures, and acting as an expert witness. His clients have included federal, state, and local public agencies, civil and geotechnical engineering consultants and contractors, attorneys, and manufacturers, both in North America and overseas. William D. Kovacs, F. ASCE, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Professor and former Chairman of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1984 to 1990, Dr. Kovacs has conducted sponsored research under the aegis of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the United States National Bureau of Standards (USNBS), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Naval Facilities Command (NAVFAC), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE). He is the author and co-author of over sixty-five publications. A registered professional engineer, a member of the Chi Epsilon Civil Engineering Honor Society, and a recipient of predoctoral grants in 1967 and 1968, Dr. Kovacs' geotechnical engineering research interests focus on: In Situ Testing; Foundation Engineering; Dynamic Soil Property Evaluation; and Earthquake Engineering Dr. Kovacs received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, his M.S. from the University of California, Berkeley, the B.C.E. from Cornell University, and P.E. (CA 1965, IN 1974-2002, RI 1998). Thomas C. Sheahan is a Professor and the Senior Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Northeastern University. Dr. Sheahan received his Sc.D. in Civil Engineering from M.I.T., his M.S. in Civil Engineering from M.I.T., and his B.S. in Civil Engineering from Union College.Dr. Sheahan's areas of expertise include: Rate Effects in Soils; Offshore Geohazards; Sampling Disturbance Effects; and Laboratory Instrumentation. He is licensed as a professional engineer in California and Massachusetts. Among his most recent honors and awards are the Northeastern College of Engineering Dean's Meritorious Service Award (2009), the ASTM Committee D-18, Special Service Award (2009), the ASTM Committee on Publications, Certificate of Appreciation (2008), and the Tau Beta Pi National Capers and Marion McDonald Mentoring Award (2007).


"The authors do a nice job in presenting significant discussion in theory and background information. I prefer this approach to the more mechanical cookbook approach in which equations and methods are emphasized over theory. If the students are committed and dedicated to reading the text, they will find a wealth of useful information that compliments classroom lectures, and homework problems." -Robert Mokwa, MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY "The text provides information that goes beyond a typical undergraduate soil mechanics course. In fact I tell my students that `this is a text that you can retain for future use and reference, whether you choose to go to graduate school or engineering practice.' Plus, it's written with a good sense of humor." -Khaled Sobhan, FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY "Writing is excellent, engaging, and helpful. It anticipates well the questions forming in the average student's mind." -Trevor Smith, PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY

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