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Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements

Knowledge of instrumentation is critical in light of the highly sensitive and precise requirements of modern processes and systems. Rapid development in instrumentation technology coupled with the adoption of new standards makes a firm, up-to-date foundation of knowledge more important than ever in most science and engineering fields. Understanding this, Robert B. Northrop produced the best-selling Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements in 1997. The second edition continues to provide in-depth coverage of a wide array of modern instrumentation and measurement topics, updated to reflect advances in the field. See What's New in the Second Edition: Anderson Current Loop technology Design of optical polarimeters and their applications Photonic measurements with photomultipliers and channel-plate photon sensors Sensing of gas-phase analytes (electronic "noses") Using the Sagnac effect to measure vehicle angular velocity Micromachined, vibrating mass, and vibrating disk rate gyros Analysis of the Humphrey air jet gyro Micromachined IC accelerometers GPS and modifications made to improve accuracy Substance detection using photons Sections on dithering, delta-sigma ADCs, data acquisition cards, the USB, and virtual instruments and PXI systems Based on Northrop's 40 years of experience, Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, Second Edition is unequalled in its depth and breadth of coverage.
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Table of Contents

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS Introduction Measurement System Architecture Errors in Measurement Standards Used in Measurements Chapter Summary Problems ANALOG SIGNAL CONDITIONING Introduction Differential Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Analog Active Filter Applications Using Op-Amps Instrumentation Amplifiers Nonlinear Analog Signal Processing by Op-Amps and by Special Function Modules Charge Amplifiers Phase Sensitive Rectifiers Chapter Summary Problems NOISE AND COHERENT INTERFACE IN MEASUREMENTS Introduction Random Noise in Circuits Propagation of Gaussian Noise Through Linear Filters Broadband Noise Factor and Noise Figure of Amplifiers Spot Noise Factor and Figure Transformer Optimization of Amplifier Fspot and Output SNR Cascaded Noisy Amplifiers Calculation of the Noise Limited Resolution of Certain Signal Conditioning Systems Modern, Low Noise Amplifiers for Use in Instrumentation Signal Conditioning Systems Coherent Interference and Its Minimization Chapter Summary Problems DC NULL MEASUREMENT Introduction Wheatstone Bridge Analysis The Kelvin Bridge The Anderson Constant Current Loop Potentiometers Chapter Summary Problems AC NULL MEASUREMENTS Introduction Inductor Equivalent Circuits Capacitor Equivalent Circuits AC Operation of Wheatstone Bridges AC Bridges Chapter Summary Problems SURVEY OF SENSOR INPUT MECHANISMS Introduction Categories of Sensor Input Mechanisms Resistive Sensors Voltage Generating Sensors Sensors Based on Variable Magnetic Coupling Variable Capacitance Sensors Fiber Optic Sensors Photomultiplier Tubes and Related Electron Multiplication Devices Ionizing Radiation Sensors Electro-Chemical Sensors Electronic "Noses" Mechano-Optical Sensors Chapter Summary Problems APPLICATIONS OF SENSORS TO PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS Introduction Measurement of Angular Acceleration, Velocity, and Displacement Measurement of Linear Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement, and Position Measurement of Force and Torque Pressure Measurements Introduction to Substance Detection and Measuring Using Photons Temperature Measurements Chapter Summary Problems BASIC ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS Introduction DC Voltage Measurements Static Electric Fields and the Potential of Charged Surfaces Measurement DC Current Measurements AC Voltage Measurements AC Current Measurements Magnetic Field Measurements Phase Measurements Frequency and Period (Time) Measurements Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance Measurement Vector Impedance Meters Chapter Summary Problems DIGITAL INTERFACES IN MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS Introduction The Sampling Theorem Quantization Noise Dithering Digital-to-Analog Converters The Hold Operation Analog-to-Digital Converters The IEEE-488 Instrumentation Bus (GPIB) Serial Data Communications Links The CAMAC (IEEE-583) Modular Instrumentation Standard, and the VXI Modular Instrumentation Architecture Effect of Transmission Lines on the Transfer of Digital Data Data Transmission on Fiber Optic Cables Virtual Instruments Chapter Summary Problems INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL CONDITIONING Introduction Digital Filters and the z-Transform Some Simple DSP Algorithms Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms and Their Applications Digital Routines for Interpolating Discrete Data Chapter Summary Problems EXAMPLES OF THE DESIGN OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS Introduction A Self-Nulling, Microdegree Polarimeter to Measure Glucose in Bioreactors Design of a System to Detect, Measure, and Locate Partial Discharges in High Voltage Coaxial Power Cables Design of a Closed Loop, Constant Phase, Pulsed Laser Ranging System and Velocimeter Design of Capacitive Sensors for the Detection of Hidden Objects Chapter Summary REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

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