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Introduction to Optical Mineralogy
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Chapter 1 Light The Nature of Light Electromagnetic Radiation Phase The Perception of Color Interaction of Light and Matter Transmitted Light Velocity Index of Refraction Reflection Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection Optical Class Optical Indicatrix Dispersion Light Absorption and Color Polarized Light Polarization by Double Refraction Polarization by Reflection Polarization by Scattering Chapter 2 The Petrographic Microscope Direction Conventions Samples Illuminator Substage Assembly Microscope Stage Objective Lenses Epi-Illuminator Upper Polarizer Bertrand Lens Ocular Focusing Mechanism Accessories Additional Equipment General Care of the Microscope Adjustment of the Microscope Adjusting the Oculars Focusing Adjusting the Illuminator Centering the Objectives Adjusting the Substage Alignment of Polarizers General Considerations Chapter 3 Refractometry Relief Becke Line Method Dispersion Effects Oblique Illumination Method Practical Considerations Accuracy of the Immersion Method Determining Indices of Refraction in Thin Section Chapter 4 Optics of Isotropic Materials Isotropic Indicatrix Distinguishing Between Isotropic and Anisotropic Minerals Identification of Isotropic Minerals Grain Mount Thin Section Chapter 5 Optics of Anisotropic Minerals: Introduction Interference Phenomena Monochromatic Illumination Retardation Birefringence Interference of the Two Rays Polychromatic Illumination Orders of Interference Colors Anomalous Interference Colors Determining Thickness of a Sample Thin Section Grain Mount Determining Birefringence from the Color Chart Thin Section Grain Mount Recognizing the Different Orders of Interference Colors Extinction Categories of Extinction Use of the Accessory Plates Sign of Elongation Relief Pleochroism Chapter 6 Uniaxial Optics Optic Sign Crystallographic Considerations Uniaxial Indicatrix Use of the Indicatrix Birefringence and Interference Colors Extinction Tetragonal Minerals Hexagonal Minerals Rhombohedral Cleavage Prismatic and Pinacoidal Cleavage Pleochroism Interference Figure Optic Axis Interference Figure Formation of Isochromes Formation of Isogyres Determining Optic Sign Off -Center Optic Axis Figure Flash Figure Selecting Grains to Give Interference Figures Optic Axis Figure Flash Figure Determining Indices of Refraction Grain Mount Determining nv Determining ne Thin Section Spindle Stage Chapter 7 Biaxial Optics Biaxial Indicatrix Mathematical Relationships Use of the Indicatrix Normal Incidence Parallel to an Indicatrix Axis Normal Incidence Parallel to an Optic Axis Normal Incidence In a Random Direction Inclined Incidence Crystallographic Orientation of Indicatrix Axes Orthorhombic Minterals Monoclininc Minerals Triclinic Minerals Biaxial Interference Figure Acute Bisectrix Figure Formation of Isochromes Vibration Directions and Formation of Isogyres Centered Optic Axis Figure Obtuse Bisectrix Figure Optic Normal Figure Off -Center Figures Selecting Grains to Produce Interference Figures Determining Optic Sign Acute Bisectrix Figure Obtuse Bisectrix Figure Optic Axis Figure Flash Figures Determining 2V 2V Versus 2E Mallard's Method Tobi's Method Kamb's Method Wright Method Pleochroism Extinction Orthorhombic Minerals Monoclinic Minerals Triclinic Minerals Sign of Elongation Indices of Refraction Grain Mount Spindle Stage Dispersion in Biaxial Minerals Orthorhombic Minerals Monoclinic Minerals Triclinic Minerals Chapter 8 Reflected Light Optics Physical Properties Observed with Polished Sections Crystal Form and Habit Hardness Observation in Plane Polarized Light Reflectance Bireflectance Measurement of Reflectance and Bireflectance Color and Pleochroism Isotropic Minerals Anisotropic Minerals Observations with Crossed Polarizers Polarization Colors Isotropic Minerals Anisotropic Minerals Internal Reflection Observations Related to Conoscopic Illumination Practical Considerations Chapter 9 Identification of Minerals Descriptive Features Cleavage Twinning Alteration Association Tactics for Mineral Identification Thin Section Identification Grain Mount Identification Polished Section Identification Use of the Identification Tables Nonminerals Problems in Paradise Inconsistencies in Crystallographic Settings Poor Data Chapter 10 Framework Silicates Silica Group Quartz Chalcedony Tridymite Cristobalite Opal Volcanic Glass Feldspars Plagioclase Thin Section Grain Mount Alkali Feldspars Sanidine Orthoclase Microcline Adularia Anorthoclase Feldspathoids Nepheline Sodalite Group Leucite Cancrinite-Vishnevite Zeolites Analcime (Analcite) Natrolite Th omsonite Stilbite Chabazite Heulandite Laumontite Other Framework Silicates Scapolite Chapter 11 Sheet Silicates TO Layer Silicates Kaolinite Serpentine TOT Layer Silicates Pyrophyllite Talc TOT + Interlayer Cation Layer Silicates Muscovite Biotite Lepidolite Glauconite Margarite Clintonite TOT + O Layer Silicates Chlorite Clay Minerals Other Sheet Silicates Stilpnomelane Prehnite Apophyllite Chapter 12 Chain Silicates Pyroxenes Enstatite-Ferrosilite (Orthopyroxene) Pigeonite Calcic Clinopyroxene (Augite) Aegirine, Aegirine-Augite Omphacite Jadeite Spodumene Amphiboles Anthophyllite Gedrite Cummingtonite-Grunerite Tremolite-Actinolite-Ferro-actinolite Hornblende "Oxyhornblende" Kaersutite Richterite Arfvedsonite and Eckermannite Glaucophane-Riebeckite Series Pyroxenoids Wollastonite Rhodonite Pectolite Other Chain Silicates Sapphirine Chapter 13 Disilicates and Ring Silicates Disilicates Lawsonite Pumpellyite Melilite Vesuvianite (Idocrase) Epidote Group Zoisite Clinozoisite-Epidote Piemontite Allanite Ring Silicates Tourmaline Axinite Beryl Cordierite Chapter 14 Orthosilicates Olivine Monticellite Humite Group Garnet Group Andalusite Sillimanite Kyanite Staurolite Chloritoid Titanite (Sphene) Topaz Zircon Dumortierite Chapter 15 Carbonates, Borates, Sulfates, and Phosphates Carbonates Calcite Magnesite Siderite Rhodochrosite Dolomite-Ankerite Aragonite Strontianite Witherite Malachite Azurite Borates Borax Colemanite Sulfates Barite Celestine (Celestite) Gypsum Anhydrite Alunite Phosphates Apatite Monazite Xenotime Chapter 16 Native Elements, Sulfides, Halides, Oxides, and Hydroxides Native Elements Sulfur Graphite Gold Silver Copper Sulfides and Related Minerals Pyrite Marcasite Sphalerite Galena Pyrrhotite Chalcopyrite Halides Halite Sylvite Fluorite Oxides Periclase Cuprite Rutile Anatase Cassiterite Corundum Hematite Ilmenite Perovskite The Spinel Group Spinel Series Magnetite Chromite Chrysoberyl Hydroxides Brucite Gibbsite Diaspore Boehmite (Boehmite) Goethite Lepidocrocite Limonite Appendix A: Sample Preparation Grain Mount Thin Section Spindle Stage Polished Section Appendix B: Identification Tables Appendix C: Mineral Associations Mineral Index Subject Index

About the Author

William D. Nesse is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

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