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Introduction to Personality
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Table of Contents

Preface and Text Organization v Acknowledgments ix Chapter 1 Orientation to Personality 1 What is Personality Psychology? 1 Theory and Levels of Analysis in Personality Psychology 4 Levels of Analysis: Organization of this Book 6 Summary 18 Key Terms 18 Chapter 2 Data, Methods, and Tools 19 Why a Science of Personality?: Beyond Hindsight Understanding 19 The Range of Personality-Relevant Measures 21 Conceptual and Methodological Tools 30 Establishing Relationships Among Observations 32 Reliability and Validity of Observations and Measures 35 The Experimental Approach 37 Ethics in Personality Research 39 Summary 41 Key Terms 41 Part I The Trait-Dispositional Level Prelude to Part I: The Trait-Dispositional Level 43 Chapter 3 Types and Traits 45 Types and Traits 46 Trait Theorists 49 Common Features of Trait Theories 56 Taxonomy of Human Attributes 57 Evidence and Issues 61 Summary 70 Key Terms 71 Chapter 4 The Expressions of Dispositions 72 Traits, Situations, and the Personality Paradox 73 Incorporating Situations into Traits 75 Interactionism in Personality Psychology 82 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Taking Stock Part I: The Trait-Dispositional Level 89 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 89 Enduring Contributions of the Trait-Dispositional Level 90 Part II The Biological Level Prelude to Part II: The Biological Level 93 Chapter 5 Heredity and Personality 95 Genetic Bases of Personality 96 Twin Studies 100 Gene-Environment Interaction 110 Summary 122 Key Terms 123 Chapter 6 Brain, Evolution, and Personality 124 Brain-Personality Links 124 Biological Assessment and Change 135 Evolutionary Theory and Personality 139 Summary 147 Key Terms 147 Taking Stock Part II: The Biological Level of Analysis 148 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 148 Enduring Contributions of the Biological Level 148 Part III The Psychodynamic-motivational Level Prelude to Part III: the Psychodynamic-Motivational Level 151 Chapter 7 Psychodynamic Theories: Freud' Conceptions 155 Basic Assumptions: Unconscious Mental Determinism 157 Psychic Structure: Anatomy of the Mind 159 Conflict, Anxiety, and Psychodynamics 164 Neurosis 167 Personality Development 170 Impact of Freud's Theories 174 Summary 175 Key Terms 176 Chapter 8 Psychodynamic Applications and Processes 177 Applications to Personality Assessment 178 Murray, the Harvard Personologists, and Higher Motives 184 Treatment and Change 191 Psychodynamic Processes: Anxiety and the Unconscious 195 Current View of Unconscious Processes: the Adaptive Unconscious 199 Patterns of Defense: Individual Differences in Cognitive Avoidance 202 Summary 207 Key Terms 207 Chapter 9 Post-Freudian Psychodynamics 209 Toward Ego Psychology and the Self 210 Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Personality Development 221 Object Relations Theory and the Self 226 Attachment: The Roots of Object Relations 228 Summary 236 Key Terms 237 Taking Stock Part III: The Psychodynamic Level 238 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 238 Enduring Contributions of the Psychodynamic Level 239 Part IV The Behavioral-Conditioning Level Prelude to Part IV: The Behavioral-Conditioning Level 241 Chapter 10 Behavioral Conceptions 245 The Behavioral Approach to Psychodynamics: Dollard and Miller 246 Recasting Conflict in Learning Terms 247 Classical Conditioning: Learning Emotional Associations 253 Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning: B.F. Skinner's Contributions 259 Summary 268 Key Terms 269 Chapter 11 Analyzing and Modifying Behavior 270 Characteristics of Behavioral Assessments 271 Direct Behavior Measurement 272 Assessing Conditions Controlling Behavior 275 Changing Emotional Reactions 279 Changing Behavior 284 Summary 290 Key Terms 291 Taking Stock Part IV: The Behavioral-Conditoning Level 292 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 292 Enduring Contributions of the Behavioral-Conditioning Level 292 Part V The Phenomenological-humanistic Level Prelude to Part V: The Phenomenological-Humanistic Level 295 Chapter 12 Phenomenological-Humanistic Conceptions 297 Sources of Phenomenological-Humanistic Perspectives 298 Carl Rogers's Self Theory 304 George Kelly's Psychology of Personal Constructs 312 Common Themes and Issues 320 Summary 322 Key Terms 322 Chapter 13 The Internal View 323 Exploring Internal Experience 323 Enhancing Self-Awareness: Accessing One's Experiences 333 Change and Well-Being 339 Summary 343 Key Terms 343 Taking Stock Part V: The Phenomenological-Humanistic Level 344 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 344 Enduring Contributions of the Phenomenological-Humanistic Level 345 Part VI The Social Cognitive Level Prelude to Part VI: the Social Cognitive Level 347 Chapter 14 Social Cognitive Conceptions 349 Development of the Social Cognitive Level 349 Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory 352 Social Cognitive Reconceptualization of Personality: Walter Mischel 357 Personality Assessment 366 Personality Change and Therapy 371 Common Themes 375 Summary 377 Key Terms 378 Chapter 15 Social Cognitive Processes 379 Principles of Social Cognition Applied to Personality 379 The Self 383 Perceived Efficacy, Helplessness, and Mastery 391 Summary 400 Key Terms 401 Taking Stock Part VI: The Social Cognitive Level 402 Overview: Focus, Concepts, Methods 402 Enduring Contributions of the Social Cognitive Level 403 Part VII Integration of Levels: The Person as a Whole Prelude to Part VII: Integration of Levels 405 Chapter 16 The Personality System: Integrating the Levels 409 What has to be Integrated?: Contributions from Each Level 410 Toward Integration: Characteristics of the Personality System 414 The Personality System in Action 423 Summary 435 Key Terms 436 Chapter 17 Self-Regulation: From Goal Pursuit to Goal Attainment 437 Overview of Contributions to Self-Regulation from Each Level 438 Self-Regulatory Processes in Goal Pursuit 441 Self-Regulation in Approach (Appetitive) Dilemmas 447 Self-Regulation in Avoidance (Aversive) Dilemmas 454 Interaction of Hot and Cool Systems in Self-Regulation 457 Summary 464 Key Terms 465 Chapter 18 Personality In Its Social Context and Culture 466 Culture and Personality 467 Gender and Sex Differences 476 Interacting Influences on Personality Development 481 What Develops?: the Evolving Self 483 Summary 489 Key Terms 489 Taking Stock Part VII: Integration of Levels: The Person as a Whole 490 Prospects for Personality Psychology 490 Personology Revisited 490 Glossary 492 References 508 Name Index 549 Subject Index 559

About the Author

Walter Mischel, PhD, is a Niven Professor of Humane Letters in Psychology at Columbia University. Yuichi Shoda is the author of Introduction to Personality: Toward an Integrative Science of the Person, 8th Edition, published by Wiley. Ozlem Ayduk is the author of Introduction to Personality: Toward an Integrative Science of the Person, 8th Edition, published by Wiley.

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