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An Introduction to Shell Structures
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The art of building dome shell structures has given to the baroque for its assumed pompo- been with us since ancient times. Current ex- sity in glorifying curves. In practical terms amples in the Astrodome, the Superdome, such an attitude in design is clearly mani- the Kingdome, and the Florida Suncoast fested in the present cityscapes that are to- Dome stand to remind us of the counterpoint tally free of arches, domes, shells, and any they play to the Pantheon, S. Sophia, S. other form that is not rectilinear. Is this what Maria del Fiore, and St. Peter. The latter we really want-plans and elevations with may be thought of by some as being ancient only straight lines, ninety-degree angles, or, history, but they are present in the twentieth in some daring cases, forty-five-degree century and hence are a part of our present angles? It does not seem so. and future. Why do scholars continue to Similarly, the curricula in both civil engi- study them? What can they teach us? A re- neering and architecture in structures seem vival of interest in curvilinear structures is to ignore intentionally arches and vaults, lim- under way, as the current examples just cited iting these subjects to graduate programs in thin-shell design as being a specialized eso- testify. At the beginning of this century, under teric subject.
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Table of Contents

I Wood and Masonry Domes.- 1. Domes: Their Morphological Significance.- Origins and Symbolism of Domes.- Superstitious and Sacred Forms.- Mortuary Symbolism.- Christian Symbolism.- Notes.- 2. Domes: From Ancient to Islamic.- Domes from Their Ancient Beginnings.- Roman Domes and Vaults.- Early Christian Domes.- Domes in Christian Architecture.- Byzantine Domes.- Islamic Domes.- Notes.- 3. Domes from the Romanesque to the Present.- Romanesque Domes.- Domes in Renaissance and Baroque Italy.- Architects of the Renaissance and Baroque Periods.- European Domes Outside Italy.- Further Development.- The End of an Era.- Notes.- 4. Dome Technologies.- Structural Systems.- Domes: Basic Forces.- Lanterns and Skylights.- The Structural Characteristics of Masonry.- Basic Vaulting.- From Masonry to Concrete.- Timbrel Vaulting.- The Erection of Domes - Early Technology.- Ceramic Domes for Developing Countries.- Wooden Domes.- Notes.- II Concrete Shells: Fundamentals and Case Studies.- 5. Thin Shells US.- Shells and Surface Structures.- Thin Shells and Space Frames.- Curvature and Strength.- Shell Thickness.- Shells in Nature.- The Origins of Man-made Shells.- Overall Structural Equilibrium.- Floating Concrete Shells for Boats and Ships.- Prestressed Hulls.- Ferrocement Hulls at Present.- Notes.- 6. Selected Shapes of Shells.- Geometric Aspects.- Barrel Shells.- Conoidal Shells.- Cantilevered Shells.- Hyperboloids.- 7. Significant Examples of Concrete Shells in the Twentieth Century.- Buildings.- Shells in Art.- Experimental Shells.- Shell Builders of the Twentieth Century.- The Future of Thin Shells.- Notes.- 8. Construction Aspects of Shells.- The Construction-Design Relationship.- Supports.- Hinges and Ribs.- Precast Shell Technology.- Double-shell Construction.- Edge or Boundary Members.- Prestressing.- Posttensioning.- Professional Guidance for Thin-shell Design Work.- Notes.- 9. Computer Analysis of Shells and Domes.- The Finite Method.- III Practical Aids for the Preliminary Design of Thin Shells.- 10. Empirical Design of Masonry Vaulting.- Empirical Rules.- Shape Optimization.- Empirical Rules for Buckling.- Funicular Polygons Through Three Points.- Wind Forces.- Notes.- 11. Spherical Shells.- Proportioning and Sizing of Concrete Thin Shells.- Spherical Dome Design.- Nonspherical Dome Design.- Notes.- 12. Barrel Shells.- Barrel Vaults.- Barrel Shells.- Short Barrel Shells.- Long Barrel Shells.- 13. The Design of Hyperbolic Paraboloids.- Saddle-type Hyperbolic Paraboloids.- Four-gable-type Hyperbolic Paraboloids.- Umbrella-type Hyperbolic Paraboloids.- Inverted Umbrella-type Hyperbolic Paraboloids.- IV Skeletal Steel Structures and Megadomes.- 14. Trussed Domes.- Skeletal Structures.- Geodesics and Space Frames.- Trussed Domes and Their Builders.- Trussed-dome Geometry and Technology.- Types of Trussed Domes.- Space-frame Domes.- Cable (Tensegrity) Domes.- Pneumatic Domes.- Notes.- 15. Computer Analysis of Trussed Domes.- Epilogue.- Appendix A ACI Building Code Requirements for Thin Shells and Folded Plates.- Appendix B Excerpts from The Engineering Index Manual 1989.- Selected Bibliography.

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