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Language, Culture, and Communication

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For courses in Language and Culture, and Sociolinguistics Using data from cultures and languages throughout the world to highlight both similarities and differences in human languages-this text explores the many interconnections among language, culture, and communicative meaning. It examines the multi-faceted meanings and uses of language and emphasizes the ways that language encapsulates speakers' meanings and intentions.
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Table of Contents

Preface ix 1 Introduction 1References 6 2 The Form of the Message 7Phonology: The Sounds of Language 7Phonetics 7Phonemic Analysis 13Prosodic Features 15Morphological: The Structure of Words 17Morphological Analysis 17Morphological Typologies 19Grammatical Concepts 20Syntax: The Structure of Sentences 23Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning 27Manual Language 29Formation of Signs 29ASL Vocabulary and Grammar 31Nonverbal Communication 34Nonverbal Actions 34The Meaning of Silence 39Summary 41References 41 3 Language and Cultural Meaning 43Foundations of Linguistic Anthropology 44A Contemporary Comment 47Reexamination of Linguistic Relativity 48Lexical and Cultural Categories 51Domains 51Lexical Components 52Lexical Classifications 54Ethnoscience 56Universal Processes: Color Terms 57Focal Meaning and Prototypes 59Concepts of Space and Location 60Cultural Presupposition 65Extended and Transferred Meaning 68Metaphor and Metonymy 68Metaphors of Kinship 70Metaphors of the Body 72Summary 76References 76 4 Contextual Components: Outline of an Ethnographyof Communication 79Ethnography of Communication 79Settings 82Participants 83Terms of Address 84Pronouns 86Kinship Terms 88Honorifics 89Topics and Goals 92Speech Acts 94Narratives 96Routines 106Greetings 107Apologies 109Summary 111References 112 5 Communicative Interactions 114Structural Properties of Conversation 114Conversational Postulates 119Directives 122Directives and Responses in Context 126Telephone Conversation 127Politeness 133Theories of Politeness 133Politeness in Japanese 140Summary 143References 144 6 Societal Segmentation and Linguistic Variation:Class and Race 146Social Stratification 147Caste 147Class 148Class and Network 149New York City150Norwich, England156Parisand Rouen, France 157Maaseik, Belgium159Class-Based Codes 161Race 164African-American English in the United States 164The Structure of African-American Vernacular English 165Settings and Contexts 169The Ebonics Controversy 177Afro-Caribbean Speakers in Great Britain 179Summary 183References 184 7 Language and Gender: English and English Speakers 186Pronunciation 188Phonological Variants 188Intonation 193Grammatical Variants 194Choices of Vocabulary 198Gender-Related Conversational Styles 200Gender Bias in English 210Classes of Vocabulary 210Generic "He" and "Man" 214Summary 217References 218 8 Cross-Cultural Studies of Languageand Gender 221Gender-Exclusive Patterns 222Linguistic and Stylistic Preferences 227Japanese 227Javanese 230Malagasy 232Kuna 235Samoan 236Images of Gender in Linguistic Form 238French 238German 240Spanish 240Russian 241Mohawk 241Japanese 243Summary 244References 244 9 Learning Language 246Acquisition of Language 247Speech Sounds 248One-Word Utterances 249Two-Word Grammars 250Complex Grammars 254Morphological Development 254Growth in Vocabulary 256Syntactic Development 258Comparative Evidence 262Complex Inflectional Systems 262Agglutinating Languages 263Polysynthetic Languages 265Some Universal Sequences 267Negation 267Wh-Questions 268Locative Concepts 269Instructional Strategies 269Strategies in the United States 270Strategies in Other Cultures 272Samoans 272Kaluli 272Kwara'ae 273Basotho 274Summary 275References 275 10 The Acquisition of Communicative Competence 278Acquiring Communicative Styles 279Learning Politeness 279Learning to Express One's Feelings 281Learning to Dispute 282Learning Status and Role 284Status and Role in American English 284Status in Samoan 290Relationships in Hungarian 291Learning Discourse 292Knowledge of Conversation Structure 292Cohesion in Conversation 294Interactional Cooperation 296Narratives 298Summary 304References 304 11 Multilingual Nations 306India307Linguistic Diversity 307Standardization 311Linguistic Minorities 312Canada313Language in Canada 313Situational Use 317Attitudes toward Languages and Speakers 318The United States 323Language in the United States 323Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City 326Bilingual Education 328Recent Trends in Law 331Native American Languages 334Creole Languages in the United States 336Summary 342References 343 12 Bilingual Communities 346Linguistic Change 347Language Use in Bilingual Communities 349Endangered Languages 359The International Dominance of English 365Bilingual Conversational Strategies 368Code Switching 368Code Mixing 373Interethnic Miscommunication 375Summary 381References 381 13 Language and Institutional Encounters 385Language Ideologies 385Language and Status 393A Non-Western Comment 395Institutional Contexts 395Education 396Medical Encounters 402Legal Settings 407The Media 416Summary 425References 426 Glossary 429Index 000

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