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Learning & Behavior


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Found in this Section:1. Brief Table of Contents2. Full Table of Contents 1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS PrefaceChapter 1 History, Background, and Basic ConceptsChapter 2 Innate Behavior Patterns and HabituationChapter 3 Basic Principles of Classical ConditioningChapter 4 Theories and Research on Classical ConditioningChapter 5 Basic Principles of Operant ConditioningChapter 6 Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and ApplicationsChapter 7 Avoidance and PunishmentChapter 8 Theories and Research on Operant ConditioningChapter 9 Stimulus Control and Concept LearningChapter 10 Comparative CognitionChapter 11 Learning by ObservationChapter 12 Learning Motor SkillsChapter 13 ChoiceGlossaryReferencesAcknowledgmentsAuthor IndexSubject Index 2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1: History, Background, and Basic ConceptsThe Search for General Principles of LearningThe AssociationistsAristotleThe British Associationists: Simple and Complex IdeasEbbinghaus's Experiments on MemoryThe Effects of RepetitionThe Effects of TimeThe Role of ContiguityThe Influence of the Associationists and EbbinghausBehavioral and Cognitive Approaches to LearningThe Use of Animal Subjects The Emphasis on External EventsThe Physiological Approach: Brain and BehaviorThe Basic Characteristics of NeuronsPhysiological Research on Simple SensationsPhysiological Research on Feature DetectorsPhysiological Research on LearningSummaryReview Questions Chapter 2: Innate Behavior Patterns and HabituationCharacteristics of Goal-Directed SystemsReflexesTropisms and OrientationKinesesTaxesSequences of BehaviorFixed Action Patterns Reaction ChainsInnate Human Abilities and PredispositionsHabituationGeneral Principles of Habituation Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation Habituation in Emotional Responses: The Opponent-Process TheorySummaryReview Questions Chapter 3: Basic Principles of Classical ConditioningPavlov's Discovery and Its ImpactThe Standard Paradigm of Classical ConditioningThe Variety of Conditioned ResponsesPavlov's Stimulus Substitution Theory S-S or S-R Connections?Basic Conditioning PhenomenaAcquisitionExtinctionSpontaneous Recovery, Disinhibition, and Rapid Reacquisition Conditioned InhibitionGeneralization and DiscriminationThe Importance of Timing in Classical ConditioningCS-US CorrelationsHigher Order ConditioningClassical Conditioning Outside the LaboratoryClassical Conditioning and Emotional ResponsesClassical Conditioning and the Immune System Applications in Behavior TherapySummaryReview Questions Chapter 4: Theories and Research on Classical ConditioningTheories of Associative LearningThe Blocking EffectThe Rescorla-Wagner ModelOther TheoriesSummaryTypes of AssociationsAssociations in First-Order ConditioningAssociations in Second-Order ConditioningAssociations with Contextual StimuliCS-CS AssociationsOccasion Setting SummaryBiological Constraints on Classical ConditioningThe Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion LearningBiological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion LearningBiological Preparedness in Human LearningBiological Constraints and the General-Principle ApproachThe Form of the Conditioned Response Drug Tolerance and Drug Cravings as Conditioned ResponsesConditioned Opponent TheoriesPhysiological Research on Classical ConditioningSummary Review Questions Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Operant ConditioningThe Law of EffectThorndike's ExperimentsGuthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening ProcessSuperstitious BehaviorsThe Procedure of Shaping, or Successive ApproximationsShaping Lever Pressing in a RatShaping Behaviors in the ClassroomShaping as a Tool in Behavior ModificationMaking Shaping More Precise: Percentile SchedulesVersatility of the Shaping ProcessThe Research of B. F. SkinnerThe Free OperantThe Three-Term ContingencyBasic Principles of Operant ConditioningResurgence Conditioned ReinforcementResponse ChainsBiological Constraints on Operant ConditioningInstinctive DriftAutoshapingReconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological ConstraintsSummaryReview Questions Chapter 6: Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and ApplicationsPlotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative RecorderThe Four Simple Reinforcement SchedulesFixed RatioVariable Ratio Fixed IntervalVariable IntervalExtinction and the Four Simple SchedulesOther Reinforcement SchedulesFactors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement SchedulesBehavioral MomentumContingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed BehaviorsReinforcement HistorySummaryThe Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement SchedulesCause of the FR Postreinforcement PauseComparisons of VR and VI Response RatesApplications of Operant ConditioningTeaching Language to Children with AutismToken ReinforcementOrganizational Behavior ManagementBehavior Therapy for Marital ProblemsConclusionsSummaryReview Questions Chapter 7: Avoidance and PunishmentAvoidanceA Representative ExperimentTwo-Factor Theory Evidence Supporting Two-Factor TheoryProblems with Two-Factor TheoryOne-Factor TheoryCognitive TheoryBiological Constraints in Avoidance LearningConclusions about the Theories of AvoidanceFlooding as Behavior TherapyLearned HelplessnessPunishmentIs Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of PunishmentDisadvantages of Using PunishmentNegative PunishmentBehavior Decelerators in Behavior TherapyPositive PunishmentNegative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-OutOther Techniques for Behavior DecelerationSummaryReview Questions Chapter 8: Theories and Research on Operant ConditioningThe Role of the ResponseThe Role of the ReinforcerIs Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?Expectations about the ReinforcerCan Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?BiofeedbackHow Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?Need ReductionDrive ReductionTrans-situationalityPremack's PrincipleResponse Deprivation Theory The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and ReinforcersBehavioral EconomicsOptimization: Theory and Research Elasticity and Inelasticity of DemandBehavioral Economics and Drug AbuseOther ApplicationsSummaryReview Questions Chapter 9: Stimulus Control and Concept LearningGeneralization GradientsMeasuring Generalization GradientsWhat Causes Generalization Gradients?Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?Transposition and Peak ShiftSpence's Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients The Intermediate-Size ProblemOther Data, and Some ConclusionsBehavioral Contrast"Errorless" Discrimination LearningTransfer of Learning and Learning SetsConcept LearningThe Structure of Natural CategoriesAnimal Studies on Natural Concept LearningDeveloping Stimulus EquivalenceStimulus Control in Behavior ModificationStimulus Equivalence TrainingStudy Habits and Health HabitsInsomniaSummaryReview Questions Chapter 10: Comparative CognitionMemory and RehearsalShort-Term Memory, or Working MemoryRehearsalLong-Term Memory, Retrieval, and ForgettingTime, Number, and Serial PatternsExperiments on an "Internal Clock"CountingSerial Pattern LearningChunkingLanguage and ReasoningTeaching Language to AnimalsReasoning by AnimalsSummaryReview Questions Chapter 11: Learning by ObservationTheories of ImitationImitation as an Instinct Imitation as an Operant ResponseImitation as a Generalized Operant ResponseBandura's Theory of Imitation Which Theory of Imitation Is Best?Mirror Neurons and ImitationInteractions Between Observational Learning and Operant ConditioningAchievement MotivationAggressionEffects of the Mass MediaTelevision Violence and Aggressive BehaviorVideo Games and Popular MusicWhat Can Be Learned Through Observation?PhobiasDrug Use and AddictionsCognitive DevelopmentMoral Standards and BehaviorModeling in Behavior TherapyFacilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors Acquisition of New BehaviorsElimination of Fears and Unwanted BehaviorsVideo Self-ModelingConclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by ObservationSummaryReview Questions Chapter 12: Learning Motor SkillsThe Variety of Motor SkillsVariables Affecting Motor Learning and PerformanceReinforcement and Knowledge of Results Knowledge of PerformanceDistribution of PracticeObservational Learning of Motor Skills Transfer from Previous TrainingIronic Errors in MovementTheories of Motor-Skill LearningAdams's Two-Stage Theory Schmidt's Schema TheoryWhat is the Best Way to Practice?Learning Movement SequencesThe Response Chain Approach Motor ProgramsDynamic Pattern TheorySummaryReview Questions Chapter 13: ChoiceThe Matching LawHerrnstein's Experiment Other Experiments on Matching Deviations from Matching Varying the Quality and Amount of Reinforcement An Application to Single SchedulesTheories of Choice BehaviorMatching Theory and Melioration TheoryOptimization TheoryMomentary Maximization TheoryOther Theories of ChoiceSelf-Control ChoicesDelay DiscountingThe Ainslie-Rachlin TheoryAnimal Studies on Self-ControlFactors Affecting Self-Control in Children Techniques for Improving Self-ControlOther Choice SituationsRisk Taking The Tragedy of the CommonsSummaryReview Questions GlossaryReferencesAcknowledgmentsAuthor IndexSubject Index

About the Author

James E. Mazur obtained his B.A. in Psychology from Dartmouth College in 1973, and his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Harvard University in 1977. He taught at Harvard University as an assistant professor and associate professor from 1980 to 1988, and since then he has taught at Southern Connecticut State University, where he is a CSU Professor of Psychology. He has conducted research on operant conditioning and choice for over 35 years. He has published over 60 journal articles and chapters on such topics as reinforcement schedules, conditioned reinforcement, self-control, risk-taking, procrastination, and mathematical models of choice.

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