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Loess in China

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Table of Contents

1. A Brief History of Loess Studies in China.- 1.1 The Significance of the Study of Loess.- 1.2 The Terminology and Concept of Loess.- 1.3 The Process of Loess Formation.- 1.3.1 The Source of Loess Material.- 1.3.2 Transportation and Sedimentation of Loess.- 1.3.3 The Biogeochemical Stage of Loess-Forming and Loess Evolution.- 1.4 A Brief History of Loess Studies.- 2. Regional Distribution of the Aeolian Products (Loess).- 2.1 Loess Distribution.- 2.1.1 Area of Loess Cover.- 2.1.2 Loess Deposit Subregions.- 2.1.3 Some Aspects of the Loess Distribution in China.- 2.2 Geological Structure of Basins with Loess Sediments.- 2.2.1 Basins with Loess Sediments and Their Strata.- 2.2.2 Division of Ages for Luochuan Loess-Paleosol.- 3. Time Sequence of Loess Deposits.- 3.1 Luochuan Loess-Paleosol Sequence.- 3.1.1 Geological Events Recorded by Loess-Paleosol Sequence.- 3.1.2 Luochuan Loess Section.- 3.1.3 Geological-Climatic Events and Loess Sequences.- 3.1.4 Polycyclic Geological-Climatic Events and Brunhes Chronostratigraphy in Northern China.- 3.2 Magnetostratigraphy of Loess and the Lower Boundary of the Pleistocene.- 3.2.1 Magnetostratigraphy of Luochuan Loess.- 3.2.2 Geological Significance of the Magnetic Boundary.- 3.3 14C Dating of Loess.- 3.3.1 Loess 14C Dating Methods.- 3.3.2 Results of Loess 14C Dates.- 3.3.3 Discussion.- 3.4 Loess Sedimentation Sequence in the Last 10000 Years.- 3.4.1 Distribution of Holocene Loess.- 3.4.2 Age of Black Loam and Stratigraphic Division of Holocene Loess in the Middle Reaches of the Huanghe River.- 3.4.3 Particle Size and Mineral Composition of Holocene Loess.- 3.5 Discussion of Loess-Paleosol Sequence and of Geological Events in the Past 2.4 Million Years.- 3.5.1 Time Sequence of Luochuan Loess-Paleosols.- 3.5.2 Geological Events over the Past 2.4 Million Years.- 3.5.3 Discussion on the Age of Early Human Fossils in Northern China.- 4. Fossils in Loess and Its Ecological Environment.- 4.1 Fossil Mammals with Special Evidence of the Evolution of Myospalax.- 4.1.1 Description of New Species and Its Importance to the Age of Loess.- 4.2 Fossil Snails and Their Environment.- 4.3 Spores, Pollen and Paleovegetation.- 4.3.1 Pollen Analysis of Loess.- 4.3.2 Spores and Pollen Assemblage, Paleovegetation and Paleoenvironment of the Luochuan Region.- 5. Composition of Loess.- 5.1 Grain-Size Distribution.- 5.1.1 A General Description of the Features of Grain-Size Distribution.- 5.1.2 "Silt to Clay" Ratio Kd and Its Geological Implication.- 5.1.3 Grain-Size Cycles and the Lithologic-Stratigraphic Association.- 5.1.4 Formation of Loess in Light of the Grain-Size Distribution.- 5.2 Heavy Minerals.- 5.2.1 The Main Compositional Characteristics of Heavy Minerals in Loess and Paleosol.- 5.2.2 Differences in Composition of Heavy Minerals in Loesses of Different Periods.- 5.2.3 Characteristics of Heavy Mineral Assemblage in Cinnamonic Paleosol.- 5.2.4 Discussion.- 5.3 Clay Mineral.- 5.3.1 Clay Mineral Composition of Loess.- 5.3.2 The Structural Variation of Illite in Loess.- 5.3.3 A Discussion on the Geological Environments of Formation of Loess and Paleosol with a Special Emphasis on Clay Mineral Analyses.- 5.3.4 Source of the Clay Minerals in Loess.- 5.3.5 Influence of Diagenesis on Clay Minerals in Loess.- 5.4 Geochemical Characteristics.- 5.4.1 The Main Chemical Components of Loess.- 5.4.2 Carbonates in Loess.- 5.4.3 Trace Elements in Loess.- 5.4.4 Geochemical Features of Paleosol.- 5.4.5 The Relationship Between Element Geochemistry and Paleoclimatology.- 5.4.6 Medium Conditions of Loess Accumulation.- 5.5 Rare Earth Elements.- 5.5.1 Content and Distribution of Rare Earth Elements in Loess.- 5.5.2 REE Distribution Patterns and Characteristics of Luochuan Loess.- 5.5.3 Geochemical Implications of Some REE Ratios in Loess.- 5.5.4 Correlations Between REE and Elements of Fe, Al and Ca in Loess.- 5.6 Amino Acids.- 5.6.1 Sampling and Analytical Preparation.- 5.6.2 Results and Discussion.- 5.7 Paleosol.- 5.7.1 Micromorphology of Paleosol and Loess.- 5.7.2 The Classification of Paleosols.- 5.7.3 Weathered Types of Loess.- 5.7.4 Paleoenvironmental Significance of Paleosol and Loess.- 6. Loess and the Environment.- 6.1 Dust Deposition and the Modern Dust Storm.- 6.1.1 General Characteristics of Dust Storms and Their Bearing on Loess.- 6.1.2 Analyses of Several Dust Storm Events.- 6.1.3 Dust Storms and Atmospheric Motion in Various Scales.- 6.1.4 Dust Storms and the Source Region of Loess.- 6.2 Amount and Rate of Loess Deposition.- 6.2.1 Depositional Amount of Loess.- 6.2.2 Depositional Rate and Stratigraphical Ages of Loess.- 6.2.3 Discussion.- 6.3 Long-Term Climatic Changes in the Loess Plateau of China.- 6.3.1 Variational Sequence of Climatic Elements (Annual Mean Temperature and Annual Mean Precipitation) of Luochuan for the Past 1.1 Million Years.- 6.3.2 Paleoclimatic Curves Over the Last 2.4 Million Years.- 6.3.3 Comparison Between Pleistocene Land/Sea Climatic Records.- 6.4 Spectral Analysis of Luochuan Loess-Paleosol Sequence.- 6.4.1 Time Models of the Loess-Paleosol Sequence.- 6.4.2 Approach to Multispectral Analysis.- 6.4.3 Dominant Oscillations of Luochuan Climatic Series.- 6.4.4 Discussion.- 6.5 Composition of Loess and Loessial Soil and Agricultural Production.- 6.5.1 Composition and Texture of Loess and Agricultural Production.- 6.5.2 Trace Elements in Loess and Loessial Soil and Agricultural Production.- 6.6 Geochemical Environment of Loess and Endemic Diseases.- 6.6.1 Keshan Disease.- 6.6.2 Kaschin-Beck Disease.- 6.6.3 Disease by Local Fluorine Poisoning.- 6.6.4 Other Local Disease in Loess Region.- 6.6.5 Local Cancer of the Esophagus.- 6.6.6 Local Diseases in Loess Region and Geological Investigation.- 6.7 Property of Engineering Geology of Loess Deposits and Evaluation of Regional Stability.- 6.7.1 Characteristics of Regional Distribution of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Loess.- 6.7.2 Collapsing Loess and Its Regional Distribution.- 6.7.3 Engineering-Geological Division and Regional Stability.- 6.8 Environment and Erosion of Loesses.- 6.8.1 Circumstance of the Erosion of Loesses on the Loess Plateau.- 6.8.2 Geological Environment and Erosion of Loess.- 6.8.3 The Gully System and the Mosaic Environment of Loess.- 6.8.4 Geological Environment and Some Problems of Water and Soil Conservation.- 7. Methods in Loess Research.- 7.1 The Principles of Stratigraphic Classification and Nomenclature of Loess Sequence.- 7.1.1 The Codes for Quaternary Stratigraphy.- 7.1.2 The Status Quo of Loess Stratigraphic Classification in China.- 7.1.3 Loess Stratigraphic Classification and Nomenclature.- 7.2 Thermoluminescent Dating of Loess.- 7.2.1 Methods for Determining the Age of Loess.- 7.2.2 The Formative Age of Luochuan Loess.- References.

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