Excerpt from The Lombard Communes: A History of the Republics of North Italy In tracing this history of the city-states of Lombardy I have relied in the main for the facts on Lanzani's "Storia dei Comuni italiani," and on the works, earlier in date, but differing but little as to the events recorded, of Leo, von Raumer, and Sismondi. But I have carefully checked their statements by reference to Muratori's great compilation, the "Annali d'ltalia," and to the contemporary chronicles published by him in the "Rerum Italicarum Scriptores." For special points I have consulted numerous other works, amongst which are specially to be named Salzer's "Ueber die Anfange der Signorie in Oberitalien" and Cipolla's "Storia di Verona." Cantu, in his "Storia degli Italiani" and "Storia di Como," gives many curious details as to life and manners. Ferrari's "Histoire des Revolutions d'ltalie," though its political theories are wild in the extreme, gives perhaps the best idea of the warfare between city and city, and the fury of internal factions. There are, however, one or two points in regard to which I differ from most of the writers quoted. Lanzani, following Ferrari and others, lays down a theory of the origins of the internal feuds of the Italian cities, which has found great favour in the peninsula. He holds that these factions were, in a large measure, the result of an antagonism between the civic nobility, who were to a certain extent of Roman descent, or who, at any rate, had imbibed Roman ideas, and the country nobles, men in whom German ideas still survived, and who had been forced by the victorious burghers to come and live within the walls of the cities. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.