. SANITATION IN PERSPECTIVE Why another book? Sources of experience What is sanitation? Sanitation coverage Some local coverage data Unreliability of statistics Sanitation in cities What is appropriate sanitation? Improving health Privacy and convenience Availability of resources Criteria for satisfactory sanitation The environment People and communities Management of sanitation SANITATION AND HEALTH Disease and death in developing countries Transmission of disease Waterbome diseases Other transmission routes Problems with wastewater Survival of pathogens Use of treated wastewater Diarrhoea and worms Evidence of health benefits Cost of disease Reduced mortality and illness Reduced incidence of worm diseases Reduced diarrhoea Mistaken ideas and good understanding SANITATION ALTERNATIVES Technology and software In the open Why people like the open air Disadvantages of open defecation Wrap and carry Use of latrines Women's use of latrines Children's use of latrines Men and latrines Shelter and location Privacy and protection Doors for shelters Prestige and status Separate latrines for men and women Comfortable latrines Where to put the latrine Location for Muslims Congested sites Sanitation alternatives Cultural variations and preferences Children's latrines Satisfaction with latrines Finding out what people want Classification of methods PARTB APPROPRIATE SANITATION SYSTEMS PIT LATRINES The pit and its size Types of pit latrine The popularity of pit latrines Crude pits Satisfactory simple pit latrines Pit size and 'life' Methods of anal cleaning Rate of solids accumulation Shallow pits Large pits Size for liquid infiltration Control of flies, mosquitoes and smell Fits with lids Ventilated pits Permanent VIPs Vent pipes Watergate bowls Water-seal latrines The water seal Alternative pour-flush latrines Full pits and twin pits Manual emptying of pits Mechanical emptying of pits Alternating pits Double pits Experience of twin and double pits Slabs and linings Slabs Ferrocement slabs Domed slabs Removable slabs Squat holes, footrests and seats Pit linings Pits without linings Other pit latrines Borehole latrines Raised pits Pits over swamps EXCRETA AS A RESOURCE The value of excreta The value of urine Compost latrines Continuous compost latrines Double vault compost latrines Aquaculture Biogas Food for animals REMOVAL SYSTEMS, SEPTIC TANKS AND AQUA PRIVIES Container systems Chemical toilets (or chemical closets) Vaults Vault and tanker system Cesspits Overhung latrines Conventional sewerage Advantages of sewerage Disadvantages of conventional sewerage Some difficulties with sewerage for lowincome communities in developing countries Non-conventional sewerage (NCS) or reduced cost sewerage Experience of NCS systems Vacuum systems Conventional septic tanks Advantages of septic tanks Disadvantages of septic tanks Design size of septic tanks Desludging Small and extended septic tanks Aqua privies TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Disposal of liquids Groundwater pollution The two metre rule Sand envelopes Shallow groundwater Chemical pollution Rise of groundwater Disposal of liquids to surface waters Disposal of effluent from septic tanks and aqua privies Mound soakaways Sewage treatment and disposal Irrigation with wastewater 93 Wastewater treatment 94 Conventional sewage treatment 95 Waste stabilization ponds 96 Irrigation with treated wastewater 96 c. The problem of solids disposal 97 d. Treatment and disposal of solids 98 Methods of dealing with septage, nightsoil and the contents of vaults and pit latrines 99 PARTC GETTING APPROPRIATE SANITATION 8 INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS 101 a. Paying for latrines and willingness to pay Paying h ighly for san itation 101 b. Costs (construction, operation and maintenance) 103 Overall costs 103 Cost of sanitation alternatives 105 Total annual cost per household 106 c. Operation and maintenance 107 Sullage in pits 108 Hygiene education 109 Controlling nuisance 109 Dealing with pits 110 Water seals and sewer connections 112 9 COMMUNITY EFFORTS 113 a. Community management, motivation and mobilization Communities and participation 113 Communities working together 113 Promotion and motivation 114 Community committees 116 Demonstration latrines 116 Appropriate technology for community participation 117 Affordable participation 118 Delays with participation 118 Communities and professionals 118 b. Help from agencies 119 Help with software 119 Paying all the cost 120 Subsidies 120 Governments 121 Donors 122 NGOs and the private sector 122 c. Regulations, control, planning 124 Inappropriate regulations 124 Responsible authorities 124 Master plans 125 d. Public and communal latrines 125 Unsatisfactory public latrines 127 Popular public latrines 128 Operation by contractors 130 e. School latrines 131 10 SELECTION, EVALUATION AND UPGRADING 133 a. Guides for selection b. Information for selection c. Evaluation d. Upgrading Upgrading pit latrines ANNEXES I Statistics for low income countries II Glossary HI Gazetteer - an index of places IV References V Index
John Pickford (1927-2006) founded the Water Engineering and Development Centre at Loughborough University 40 years ago.