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MariaDB Crash Course


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1What Is MariaDB Crash Course? 1 Who Is This Book For? 2Companion Web Site 3Conventions Used in This Book 31: Understanding SQL 5Database Basics 5 What Is a Database? 6 Tables 6 Columns and Datatypes 7 Rows 8 NULL 8 Primary Keys 9What Is SQL? 10Try It Yourself 11Summary 112: Introducing MariaDB 13What Is MariaDB? 13 Client-Server Software 14 MySQL Compatibility 15MariaDB Tools 16 mysql Command Line 16 MySQL Workbench 17Summary 193: Working with MariaDB 21Making the Connection 21Selecting a Database 22Learning About Databases and Tables 23Summary 264: Retrieving Data 27The SELECT Statement 27Retrieving Individual Columns 27Retrieving Multiple Columns 29Retrieving All Columns 30Retrieving Distinct Rows 31Limiting Results 32Using Fully Qualified Table Names 34Using Comments 35Summary 365: Sorting Retrieved Data 37Sorting Data 37Sorting by Multiple Columns 39Specifying Sort Direction 40Summary 436: Filtering Data 45Using the WHERE Clause 45The WHERE Clause Operators 46 Checking Against a Single Value 47 Checking for Nonmatches 48 Checking for a Range of Values 49 Checking for No Value 50Summary 517: Advanced Data Filtering 53Combining WHERE Clauses 53 Using the AND Operator 53 Using the OR Operator 54 Understanding Order of Evaluation 55Using the IN Operator 57Using the NOT Operator 58Summary 598: Using Wildcard Filtering 61Using the LIKE Operator 61 The Percent Sign (%) Wildcard 62 The Underscore (_) Wildcard 64Tips for Using Wildcards 65Summary 659: Searching Using Regular Expressions 67Understanding Regular Expressions 67Using Regular Expressions 68 Basic Character Matching 68 Performing OR Matches 70 Matching One of Several Characters 71 Matching Ranges 72 Matching Special Characters 73 Matching Character Classes 75 Matching Multiple Instances 75 Anchors 77Summary 7910: Creating Calculated Fields 81Understanding Calculated Fields 81Concatenating Fields 82 Using Aliases 84Performing Mathematical Calculations 85Summary 8711: Using Data Manipulation Functions 89Understanding Functions 89Using Functions 90 Text Manipulation Functions 90 Date and Time Manipulation Functions 92 Numeric Manipulation Functions 96Summary 9612: Summarizing Data 97Using Aggregate Functions 97 The AVG() Function 98 The COUNT() Function 99 The MAX() Function 100 The MIN() Function 101 The SUM() Function 102Aggregates on Distinct Values 103Combining Aggregate Functions 104Summary 10513: Grouping Data 107Understanding Data Grouping 107Creating Groups 108Filtering Groups 109Grouping and Sorting 112SELECT Clause Ordering 113Summary 11414: Working with Subqueries 115Understanding Subqueries 115Filtering by Subquery 115Using Subqueries as Calculated Fields 119Summary 12215: Joining Tables 123Understanding Joins 123 Understanding Relational Tables 123 Why Use Joins? 125Creating a Join 125 The Importance of the WHERE Clause 127 Inner Joins 129 Joining Multiple Tables 130Summary 13216: Creating Advanced Joins 133Using Table Aliases 133Using Different Join Types 134 Self Joins 134 Natural Joins 136 Outer Joins 137Using Joins with Aggregate Functions 139Using Joins and Join Conditions 140Summary 14017: Combining Queries 141Understanding Combined Queries 141Creating Combined Queries 141 Using UNION 142 UNION Rules 144 Including or Eliminating Duplicate Rows 144 Sorting Combined Query Results 145Summary 14618: Full-Text Searching 147Understanding Full-Text Searching 147Using Full-Text Searching 148 Enabling Full-Text Searching Support 148 Performing Full-Text Searches 149 Using Query Expansion 152 Boolean Text Searches 154 Full-Text Search Usage Notes 158Summary 15919: Inserting Data 161Understanding Data Insertion 161Inserting Complete Rows 161Inserting Multiple Rows 165Inserting Retrieved Data 166Summary 16820: Updating and Deleting Data 169Updating Data 169Deleting Data 171Guidelines for Updating and Deleting Data 172Summary 17321: Creating and Manipulating Tables 175Creating Tables 175 Basic Table Creation 176 Working with NULL Values 177 Primary Keys Revisited 179 Using AUTO_INCREMENT 180 Specifying Default Values 181 Engine Types 182Updating Tables 183Deleting Tables 185Renaming Tables 185Summary 18622: Using Views 187Understanding Views 187 Why Use Views 188 View Rules and Restrictions 188Using Views 189 Using Views to Simplify Complex Joins 189 Using Views to Reformat Retrieved Data 191 Using Views to Filter Unwanted Data 192 Using Views with Calculated Fields 193 Updating Views 194Summary 19523: Working with Stored Procedures 197Understanding Stored Procedures 197Why Use Stored Procedures 198Using Stored Procedures 199 Executing Stored Procedures 199 Creating Stored Procedures 200 Dropping Stored Procedures 201 Working with Parameters 202 Building Intelligent Stored Procedures 205 Inspecting Stored Procedures 208Summary 20824: Using Cursors 209Understanding Cursors 209Working with Cursors 209 Creating Cursors 210 Opening and Closing Cursors 210 Using Cursor Data 212Summary 21625: Using Triggers 217Understanding Triggers 217Creating Triggers 218Dropping Triggers 219Using Triggers 219 INSERT Triggers 219 DELETE Triggers 221 UPDATE Triggers 223 More on Triggers 223Summary 22426: Managing Transaction Processing 225Understanding Transaction Processing 225Controlling Transactions 227 Using ROLLBACK 227 Using COMMIT 228 Using Savepoints 229 Changing the Default Commit Behavior 230Summary 23027: Globalization and Localization 231Understanding Character Sets and Collation Sequences 231Working with Character Set and Collation Sequences 232Summary 23428: Managing Security 235Understanding Access Control 235Managing Users 236 Creating User Accounts 237 Deleting User Accounts 238 Setting Access Rights 238 Changing Passwords 241Summary 24229: Database Maintenance 243Backing Up Data 243Performing Database Maintenance 243Diagnosing Startup Problems 245Review Log Files 245Summary 24630: Improving Performance 247Improving Performance 247Summary 249A: Getting Started with MariaDB 251What You Need 251Obtaining the Software 252Installing the Software 252Preparing to Try It Yourself 253B: The Example Tables 255Understanding the Sample Tables 255 Table Descriptions 256Creating the Sample Tables 259 Using mysql 260 Using MySQL Workbench 261C: MariaDB Datatypes 263String Datatypes 263Numeric Datatypes 265Date and Time Datatypes 266Binary Datatypes 266D: MariaDB Reserved Words 269 Index 275

Introduction Chapter 1: Understanding SQL Chapter 2: Introducing MariaDB Chapter 3: Working with MariaDB Chapter 4: Retrieving Data Chapter 5: Sorting Retrieved Data Chapter 6: Filtering Data Chapter 7: Advanced Data Filtering Chapter 8: Using Wildcard Filtering Chapter 9: Searching Using Regular Expressions Chapter 10: Creating Calculated Fields Chapter 11: Using Data Manipulation Functions Chapter 12: Summarizing Data Chapter 13: Grouping Data Chapter 14: Working with Subqueries Chapter 15: Joining Tables Chapter 16: Creating Advanced Joins Chapter 17: Combining Queries Chapter 18: Full-Text Searching Chapter 19: Inserting Data Chapter 20: Updating and Deleting Data Chapter 21: Creating and Manipulating Tables Chapter 22: Using Views Chapter 23: Working with Stored Procedures Chapter 24: Using Cursors Chapter 25: Using Triggers Chapter 26: Managing Transaction Processing Chapter 27: Globalization and Localization Chapter 28: Managing Security Chapter 29: Database Maintenance Chapter 30: Improving Performance Appendix A: Getting Started with MariaDB Appendix B: The Example Tables Appendix C: MariaDB Datatypes Appendix D: MariaDB Reserved Words Index

About the Author

Ben Forta is Adobe Systems' Director of Developer Relations and has more than 20 years experience in the computer industry in product development, support, training, and product marketing. Ben is the author of the best-selling Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes (now in its third edition, and translated into more than a dozen languages), spinoff titles on MySQL and SQL Server T-SQL, ColdFusion Web Application Construction Kit and Advanced ColdFusion Application Development (both published by Adobe Press), Sams Teach Yourself Regular Expressions in 10 Minutes, as well as books on Flash, Java, Windows, and other subjects. He has extensive experience in database design and development, has implemented databases for several highly successful commercial software programs and Web sites, and is a frequent lecturer and columnist on Internet and database technologies. Ben lives in Oak Park, Michigan, with his wife, Marcy, and their seven children. Ben welcomes your e-mail at and invites you to visit his Web site at

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