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Mechanical Behavior of Materials


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Types of Material Failure 21.3 Design and Materials Selection 101.4 Technological Challenge 161.5 Economic Importance of Fracture 181.6 Summary 19References 20Problems and Questions 20 2 Structure and Deformation in Materials 222.1 Introduction 222.2 Bonding in Solids 242.3 Structure in Crystalline Materials 282.4 Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength 322.5 Inelastic Deformation 372.6 Summary 43References 44Problems and Questions 45 3 A Survey of Engineering Materials 473.1 Introduction 473.2 Alloying and Processing of Metals 483.3 Irons and Steels 543.4 Nonferrous Metals 623.5 Polymers 663.6 Ceramics and Glasses 763.7 Composite Materials 823.8 Materials Selection for Engineering Components 873.9 Summary 93References 95Problems and Questions 96 4 Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Tests 1004.1 Introduction 1004.2 Introduction to Tension Test 1054.3 Engineering Stress Strain Properties 1104.4 Trends in Tensile Behavior 1194.5 True Stress Strain Interpretation of Tension Test 1254.6 Compression Test 1334.7 Hardness Tests 1394.8 Notch-Impact Tests 1464.9 Bending and Torsion Tests 1514.10 Summary 157References 158Problems and Questions 159 5 Stress Strain Relationships and Behavior 1725.1 Introduction 1725.2 Models for Deformation Behavior 1735.3 Elastic Deformation 1835.4 Anisotropic Materials 1965.5 Summary 205References 207Problems and Questions 207 6 Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strain 2166.1 Introduction 2166.2 Plane Stress 2176.3 Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress 2276.4 Three-Dimensional States of Stress 2356.5 Stresses on the Octahedral Planes 2426.6 Complex States of Strain 2446.7 Summary 249References 251Problems and Questions 251 7 Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses 2577.1 Introduction 2577.2 General Form of Failure Criteria 2597.3 Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion 2617.4 Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion 2647.5 Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion 2707.6 Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteria 2777.7 Coulomb Mohr Fracture Criterion 2837.8 Modified Mohr Fracture Criterion 2937.9 Additional Comments on Failure Criteria 3007.10 Summary 303References 304Problems and Questions 305 8 Fracture of Cracked Members 3168.1 Introduction 3168.2 Preliminary Discussion 3198.3 Mathematical Concepts 3268.4 Application of K to Design and Analysis 3308.5 Additional Topics on Application of K 3418.6 Fracture Toughness Values and Trends 3538.7 Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM 3638.8 Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing 3728.9 Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity 3738.10 Summary 380References 383Problems and Questions 384 9 Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach 3989.1 Introduction 3989.2 Definitions and Concepts 4009.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading 4119.4 Fatigue Testing 4129.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage 4179.6 Trends in S-N Curves 4239.7 Mean Stresses 4339.8 Multiaxial Stresses 4459.9 Variable Amplitude Loading 4509.10 Summary 460References 461Problems and Questions 463 10 Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members 47310.1 Introduction 47310.2 Notch Effects 47510.3 Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of k f 47910.4 Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits) 48310.5 Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Lives 48810.6 Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stress 49210.7 Estimating S-N Curves 50210.8 Use of Component S-N Data 50910.9 Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failure 51810.10 Discussion 52310.11 Summary 524References 526Problems and Questions 527 11 Fatigue Crack Growth 54211.1 Introduction 54211.2 Preliminary Discussion 54311.3 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testing 55111.4 Effects of R = Smin/Smax on Fatigue Crack Growth 55611.5 Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior 56611.6 Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loading 57211.7 Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loading 58311.8 Design Considerations 58911.9 Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue CrackGrowth 59111.10 Environmental Crack Growth 59811.11 Summary 603References 605Problems and Questions 606 12 Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials 62012.1 Introduction 62012.2 Stress Strain Curves 62312.3 Three-Dimensional Stress Strain Relationships 63112.4 Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from RheologicalModels 64112.5 Cyclic Stress Strain Behavior of Real Materials 65012.6 Summary 663References 665Problems and Questions 666 13 Stress Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members 67513.1 Introduction 67513.2 Plasticity in Bending 67613.3 Residual Stresses and Strains for Bending 68513.4 Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsion 68913.5 Notched Members 69213.6 Cyclic Loading 70413.7 Summary 715References 716Problems and Questions 717 14 Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue 72714.1 Introduction 72714.2 Strain Versus Life Curves 73014.3 Mean Stress Effects 74014.4 Multiaxial Stress Effects 74914.5 Life Estimates for Structural Components 75314.6 Discussion 76314.7 Summary 771References 772Problems and Questions 773 15 Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping 78415.1 Introduction 78415.2 Creep Testing 78615.3 Physical Mechanisms of Creep 79115.4 Time Temperature Parameters and Life Estimates 80315.5 Creep Failure under Varying Stress 81515.6 Stress Strain Time Relationships 81815.7 Creep Deformation under Varying Stress 82315.8 Creep Deformation under Multiaxial Stress 83015.9 Component Stress Strain Analysis 83215.10 Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materials 83715.11 Summary 846References 849Problems and Questions 850 Appendix A Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materials 862A.1 Introduction 862A.2 Basic Formulas for Stresses and Deflections 862A.3 Properties of Areas 864A.4 Shears, Moments, and Deflections in Beams 866A.5 Stresses in Pressure Vessels, Tubes, and Discs 866A.6 Elastic Stress Concentration Factors for Notches 871A.7 Fully Plastic Yielding Loads 872References 881 Appendix B Statistical Variation in Materials Properties 882B.1 Introduction 882B.2 Mean and Standard Deviation 882B.3 Normal or Gaussian Distribution 884

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