Preface I: Introduction1 Introducing mechatronicsChapter objectives1.1 What is mechatronics?1.2 The design process1.3 Systems1.4 Measurement systems1.5 Control systems1.6 Programmable logic controller1.7 Examples of mechatronic systemsSummaryProblems II: Sensors and signal conditioning2 Sensors and transducersChapter objectives2.1 Sensors and transducers2.2 Performance terminology2.3 Displacement, position and proximity2.4 Velocity and motion2.5 Force2.6 Fluid pressure2.7 Liquid flow2.8 Liquid level2.9 Temperature2.10 Light sensors2.11 Selection of sensors2.12 Inputting data by switchesSummaryProblems 3 Signal conditioningChapter objectives3.1 Signal conditioning3.2 The operational amplifier3.3 Protection3.4 Filtering3.5 Wheatstone bridge3.6 Pulse modulation3.7 Problems with signals3.8 Power trasferSummaryProblems 4 Digital signalsChapter objectives4.1 Digital signals4.2 Analogue and digital signals4.3 Digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters4.4 Multiplexers4.5 Data acquisition4.6 Digital signal processingSummaryProblems 5 Digital logicChapter objectives5.1 Digital logic5.2 Logic gates5.3 Applications of logic gates5.4 Sequential logicSummaryProblems 6 Data presentation systemsChapter objectives6.1 Displays6.2 Data presentation elements6.3 Magnetic recording6.4 Optical recording6.5 Displays6.6 Data acquisition systems6.7 Measurement systems6.8 Testing and calibrationSummaryProblems III: Actuation7 Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation systemsChapter objectives7.1 Actuation systems7.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic systems7.3 Directional control valves7.4 Pressure control valves7.5 Cylinders7.6 Servo and proportional control valves7.7 Process control valves7.8 Rotary actuatorsSummaryProblems 8 Mechanical actuation systemsChapter objectives8.1 Mechanical systems8.2 Types of motion8.3 Kinematic chains8.4 Cams8.5 Gear trains8.6 Ratchet and pawl8.7 Belt and chain drives8.8 BearingsSummaryProblems 9 Electrical actuation systemsChapter objectives9.1 Electrical systems9.2 Mechanical switches9.3 Solid-state switches9.4 Solenoids9.5 D.C. motors9.6 A.C. motors9.7 Stepper motors9.8 Motor selectionSummaryProblems IV: System models10 Basic system modelsChapter objectives10.1 Mathematical models10.2 Mechanical system building blocks10.3 Electrical system building blocks10.4 Fluid system building blocks10.5 Thermal system building blocksSummaryProblems 11 System modelsChapter objectives11.1 Engineering systems11.2 Rotational translational systems11.3 Electro-mechanical systems11.4 Linearity11.5 Hydraulic mechanical systemsSummaryProblems 12 Dynamic responses of systemsChapter objectives12.1 Modelling dynamic systems12.2 Terminology12.3 First-order systems12.4 Second-order systems12.5 Performance measures for second-order systems12.6 System identificationSummaryProblems 13 System transfer functionsChapter objectives13.1 The transfer function13.2 First-order systems13.3 Second-order systems13.4 Systems in series13.5 Systems with feedback loops13.6 Effect of pole location on transient responseSummaryProblems 14 Frequency responseChapter objectives14.1 Sinusoidal input14.2 Phasors14.3 Frequency response14.4 Bode plots14.5 Performance specifications14.6 StabilitySummaryProblems 15 Closed-loop controllersChapter objectives15.1 Continuous and discrete control processes15.2 Terminology15.3 Two-step mode15.4 Proportional mode15.5 Derivative control15.6 Integral control15.7 PID controller15.8 Digital controllers15.9 Control system performance15.10 Controller tuning15.11 Velocity control15.12 Adaptive controlSummaryProblems 16 Artificial intelligenceChapter objectives16.1 What is meant by artificial intelligence?16.2 Perception and cognition16.3 Reasoning16.4 LearningSummaryProblems V: Microprocessor systems17 MicroprocessorsChapter objectives17.1 Control17.2 Microprocessor systems17.3 Microcontrollers17.4 Applications17.5 ProgrammingSummaryProblems 18 Assembly languageChapter objectives18.1 Languages18.2 Instruction sets18.3 Assembly language programs18.4 Subroutines18.5 Look-up tables18.6 Embedded systemsSummaryProblems19 C language19.1 Why C?19.2 Program structure19.3 Branches and loops19.4 Arrays19.5 Pointers19.6 Program development19.7 Examples of programsSummaryProblems 20 Input/output systemsChapter Objectives20.1 Interfacing20.2 Input/output addressing20.3 Interface requirements20.4 Peripheral interface adapters20.5 Serial communications interface20.6 Examples of interfacingSummaryProblems 21 Programmable logic controllersChapter objectives21.1 Programmable logic controllers21.2 Basic PLC structure21.3 Input/output processing21.4 Ladder programming21.5 Instruction lists21.6 Latching and internal relays21.7 Sequencing21.8 Timers and counters21.9 Shift registers21.10 Master and jump controls21.11 Data handling21.12 Analogue input/outputSummaryProblems 22 Communication systemsChapter objectives22.1 Digital communications22.2 Centralised, hierarchical and distributed control22.3 Networks22.4 Protocols22.5 Open Systems Interconnection communication model22.6 Serial communication interfaces22.7 Parallel communication interfaces22.8 Wireless protocolsSummaryProblems 23 Fault findingChapter objectives23.1 Fault-detection techniques23.2 Watchdog timer23.3 Parity and error coding checks23.4 Common hardware faults23.5 Microprocessor systems23.6 Emulation and simulation23.7 PLC systemsSummaryProblems </<strong>VI: Conclusion24 Mechatronics systemsChapter objectives24.1 Mechatronic designs24.2 Case studiesSummaryProblems and assignments AppendicesA The Laplace transformB Number SystemsC Boolean AlgebraD Instructions SetsE C library FunctionsF MATLAB and SIMULINKG Electrical Circuit Analysis Further informationAnswersIndex
Preface I: Introduction 1 Introducing mechatronics Chapter objectives 1.1 What is mechatronics? 1.2 The design process 1.3 Systems 1.4 Measurement systems 1.5 Control systems 1.6 Programmable logic controller 1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems Summary Problems II: Sensors and signal conditioning 2 Sensors and transducers Chapter objectives 2.1 Sensors and transducers 2.2 Performance terminology 2.3 Displacement, position and proximity 2.4 Velocity and motion 2.5 Force 2.6 Fluid pressure 2.7 Liquid flow 2.8 Liquid level 2.9 Temperature 2.10 Light sensors 2.11 Selection of sensors 2.12 Inputting data by switches Summary Problems 3 Signal conditioning Chapter objectives 3.1 Signal conditioning 3.2 The operational amplifier 3.3 Protection 3.4 Filtering 3.5 Wheatstone bridge 3.6 Pulse modulation 3.7 Problems with signals 3.8 Power trasfer Summary Problems 4 Digital signals Chapter objectives 4.1 Digital signals 4.2 Analogue and digital signals 4.3 Digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters 4.4 Multiplexers 4.5 Data acquisition 4.6 Digital signal processing Summary Problems 5 Digital logic Chapter objectives 5.1 Digital logic 5.2 Logic gates 5.3 Applications of logic gates 5.4 Sequential logic Summary Problems 6 Data presentation systems Chapter objectives 6.1 Displays 6.2 Data presentation elements 6.3 Magnetic recording 6.4 Optical recording 6.5 Displays 6.6 Data acquisition systems 6.7 Measurement systems 6.8 Testing and calibration Summary Problems III: Actuation 7 Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation systems Chapter objectives 7.1 Actuation systems 7.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic systems 7.3 Directional control valves 7.4 Pressure control valves 7.5 Cylinders 7.6 Servo and proportional control valves 7.7 Process control valves 7.8 Rotary actuators Summary Problems 8 Mechanical actuation systems Chapter objectives 8.1 Mechanical systems 8.2 Types of motion 8.3 Kinematic chains 8.4 Cams 8.5 Gear trains 8.6 Ratchet and pawl 8.7 Belt and chain drives 8.8 Bearings Summary Problems 9 Electrical actuation systems Chapter objectives 9.1 Electrical systems 9.2 Mechanical switches 9.3 Solid-state switches 9.4 Solenoids 9.5 D.C. motors 9.6 A.C. motors 9.7 Stepper motors 9.8 Motor selection Summary Problems IV: System models 10 Basic system models Chapter objectives 10.1 Mathematical models 10.2 Mechanical system building blocks 10.3 Electrical system building blocks 10.4 Fluid system building blocks 10.5 Thermal system building blocks Summary Problems 11 System models Chapter objectives 11.1 Engineering systems 11.2 Rotational translational systems 11.3 Electro-mechanical systems 11.4 Linearity 11.5 Hydraulic mechanical systems Summary Problems 12 Dynamic responses of systems Chapter objectives 12.1 Modelling dynamic systems 12.2 Terminology 12.3 First-order systems 12.4 Second-order systems 12.5 Performance measures for second-order systems 12.6 System identification Summary Problems 13 System transfer functions Chapter objectives 13.1 The transfer function 13.2 First-order systems 13.3 Second-order systems 13.4 Systems in series 13.5 Systems with feedback loops 13.6 Effect of pole location on transient response Summary Problems 14 Frequency response Chapter objectives 14.1 Sinusoidal input 14.2 Phasors 14.3 Frequency response 14.4 Bode plots 14.5 Performance specifications 14.6 Stability Summary Problems 15 Closed-loop controllers Chapter objectives 15.1 Continuous and discrete control processes 15.2 Terminology 15.3 Two-step mode 15.4 Proportional mode 15.5 Derivative control 15.6 Integral control 15.7 PID controller 15.8 Digital controllers 15.9 Control system performance 15.10 Controller tuning 15.11 Velocity control 15.12 Adaptive control Summary Problems 16 Artificial intelligence Chapter objectives 16.1 What is meant by artificial intelligence? 16.2 Perception and cognition 16.3 Reasoning 16.4 Learning Summary Problems V: Microprocessor systems 17 Microprocessors Chapter objectives 17.1 Control 17.2 Microprocessor systems 17.3 Microcontrollers 17.4 Applications 17.5 Programming Summary Problems 18 Assembly language Chapter objectives 18.1 Languages 18.2 Instruction sets 18.3 Assembly language programs 18.4 Subroutines 18.5 Look-up tables 18.6 Embedded systems Summary Problems 19 C language 19.1 Why C? 19.2 Program structure 19.3 Branches and loops 19.4 Arrays 19.5 Pointers 19.6 Program development 19.7 Examples of programs Summary Problems 20 Input/output systems Chapter Objectives 20.1 Interfacing 20.2 Input/output addressing 20.3 Interface requirements 20.4 Peripheral interface adapters 20.5 Serial communications interface 20.6 Examples of interfacing Summary Problems 21 Programmable logic controllers Chapter objectives 21.1 Programmable logic controllers 21.2 Basic PLC structure 21.3 Input/output processing 21.4 Ladder programming 21.5 Instruction lists 21.6 Latching and internal relays 21.7 Sequencing 21.8 Timers and counters 21.9 Shift registers 21.10 Master and jump controls 21.11 Data handling 21.12 Analogue input/output Summary Problems 22 Communication systems Chapter objectives 22.1 Digital communications 22.2 Centralised, hierarchical and distributed control 22.3 Networks 22.4 Protocols 22.5 Open Systems Interconnection communication model 22.6 Serial communication interfaces 22.7 Parallel communication interfaces 22.8 Wireless protocols Summary Problems 23 Fault finding Chapter objectives 23.1 Fault-detection techniques 23.2 Watchdog timer 23.3 Parity and error coding checks 23.4 Common hardware faults 23.5 Microprocessor systems 23.6 Emulation and simulation 23.7 PLC systems Summary Problems
A practical and applied introduction to mechatronics including case-studies the integration of electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, control and computer engineering
Bill Bolton was formerly Consultant to the Further Education Unit and Head of Research and Development and Monitoring at BTEC. He has also been a UNESCO consultant and is the author of many successful engineering textbooks.