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Mediators of Inflammation

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Table of Contents

1. The Mediators of Inflammation.- 2. Mechanisms Common to Several Mediator Systems.- 2.1. Cellular Release.- 2.2. Fluid-Phase Activation.- 2.3. Bypass Mechanisms.- 2.4. Extracellular Control Loops.- 2.5. Intracellular Controls.- 3. Centrality of Phagocytes.- 4. References.- 1 Mechanisms of Mediator Release from Inflammatory cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Characteristics of Mediator Release from Cells.- 2.1. Mediators.- 2.2. Morphology of the Noncy to toxic Release Process.- 2.3. Stimuli for Noncytotoxic Release.- 2.4. Mechanisms of Noncytotoxic Release.- 2.5. Cytotoxic Reactions.- 2.6. Release In Vivo.- 3. Platelets.- 3.1. Platelet Mediators.- 3.2. Morphology of the Release Reaction.- 3.3. Stimuli Inducing the Noncy to toxic Platelet Release Reactions.- 3.4. Mechanisms of Noncytotoxic Release from Platelets.- 3.5. Cytotoxic Reactions of Platelets.- 3.6. In Vivo Release from Platelets,.- 4. Mast Cells.- 4.1. Mast Cell Mediators.- 4.2. Morphology of the Release from Mast Cells.- 4.3. Stimuli Inducing Release from Mast Cells.- 4.4. Mechanisms of Release from Mast Cells.- 4.5. Cytotoxic Reactions of Mast Cells.- 4.6. In Vivo Release from Mast Cells.- 5. Basophils.- 5.1. Basophil Mediators.- 5.2. Morphology of the Release.- 5.3. Stimuli Inducing Basophil Release.- 5.4. Mechanisms of Release from Basophils.- 6. Neutrophils.- 6.1. Neutrophil Mediators.- 6.2. Morphology of Release from Neutrophils.- 6.3. Stimuli Inducing Neutrophil Release.- 6.4. Mechanisms of Release from Neutrophils.- 6.5. Cytotoxic Reactions of Neutrophils.- 6.6. Release from Neutrophils In Vivo.- 7. Macrophages.- 8. Mediator Release as a Secretory Phenomenon.- 9. References.- 2 Lysosomal Hydrolases and Inflammatory Materials.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Lysosomes.- 2.1. Types.- 2.2. Phagosomes, Secondary Lysosomes, pH.- 3. Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Lysosomes, and Inflammation.- 4. Lysosomal Enzymes as Inflammatory Mediators.- 4.1. Acid Proteases.- 4.2. Neutral Proteases.- 4.3. Human Leukocyte Elastase-like Esterase.- 4.4. Human Leukocyte Collagenase.- 4.5. Neutral Proteases and Human Disease.- 5. Nonenzymatic Inflammatory Mediators.- 5.1. Cationic Proteins.- 5.2. Histamine.- 5.3. Leukocyte Pyrogen.- 5.4. Leukocytic Endogenous Mediator.- 6. Leukocyte-Derived Substances and Inflammatory Mediator Systems.- 6.1. Complement and Mediators of Chemotaxis.- 6.2. Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Systems.- 6.3. Leukokinins.- 7. Antibacterial Substances.- 8. Conclusions.- 9. References.- 3 The Plasma Kinin-Forming System.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biological Activities of Components and Their Inhibition.- 2.1. The Several forms of Hageman Factor; PF/dil.- 2.2. Plasminogen Activator.- 2.3. Plasmin.- 2.4. Kallikrein.- 2.5. Bradykinin.- 2.6. Inhibitors of Enzymes in the Kinin-Forming System.- 3. Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Components.- 3.1. Precursor and Active Hageman Factor.- 3.2. Hageman Factor Fragments.- 3.3. Plasminogen Proactivator and Activator.- 3.4. Plasminogen and Plasmin.- 3.5. Prekallikrein and Kallikrein.- 3.6. Kininogen.- 3.7. Kininases.- 4. Methods of Assay.- 4.1. Functional Assays.- 4.2. Immunological Methods for Measuring Certain Components of the Kinin-Forming System.- 5. Components of the Kinin System in White Blood Cells.- 5.1. Kinin-Forming Enzymes and Leukokinins.- 5.2. Kininases.- 6. Role of the Kinin-Forming System in Inflammation.- 6.1. Activation of Hageman Factor.- 6.2. Interaction with Other Plasma Systems.- 7. References.- 4 The Complement and Properdin Systems.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Nomenclature.- 3. Chemistry.- 3.1. Complement System.- 3.2. Properdin System.- 3.3. Control Proteins.- 4. Reaction Mechanisms.- 4.1. General Principles.- 4.2. Classic Complement Activation.- 4.3. The Properdin System: Activation and Amplification.- 4.4. The Terminal Sequence.- 4.5. Control Mechanisms.- 5. Biological Activities.- 5.1. Permeability Factors.- 5.2. Chemotactic Factors.- 5.3. Adherence Phenomena.- 5.4. Membrane Damage.- 6. References.- 5 Histamine and Serotonin.- 1. Histamine.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Chemical Properties.- 1.3. Assay Methods.- 1.4. Distribution.- 1.5. Metabolism.- 1.6. Pharmacological and Physiological Effects.- 1.7. Effect at a Cellular and a Molecular Level.- 1.8. Role in Inflammation.- 2. Serotonin.- 3. References.- 6 Prostaglandins.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Chemistry.- 3. Physiological Actions.- 3.1. Induction of Inflammation.- 3.2. Release During Inflammation.- 3.3. Effects of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.- 4. Prostaglandins as Possible Modulators of Inflammation.- 5. Summary.- 6. References.- 7 Slow Reacting Substances.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Slow Reacting Substance (SRS).- 3. Slow Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis (SRS-A).- 3.1. Pharmacological Properties.- 3.2. Physicochemical Properties.- 3.3. In Vitro Production.- 3.4. In Vivo Production.- 4. Concluding Comments.- 5. References.

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