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Medical Biochemistry at a Glance


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Table of Contents

Preface to the third edition 7 Acknowledgements to the third edition 7 Figure key 8 SI/mass unit conversions 9 Part 1 Acids, bases and pH 1 Acids, bases and hydrogen ions (protons) 10 2 Understanding pH 12 3 Production and removal of protons into and from the blood 14 4 Metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis 16 5 Respiratory alkalosis and respiratory acidosis 18 Part 2 Structure of amino acids and proteins 6 Amino acids and the primary structure of proteins 20 7 Secondary structure of proteins 22 8 Tertiary and quaternary structure and collagen 24 Part 3 Formation of ATP: oxidation and reduction reactions 9 Oxidation/reduction reactions, coenzymes and prosthetic groups 26 10 Anaerobic production of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, from phosphocreatine and by the adenylate kinase (myokinase) reaction 28 11 Aerobic production of ATP 30 12 Biosynthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation I 32 13 Biosynthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation II 34 14 What happens when protons or electrons leak from the respiratory chain? 36 15 Free radicals, reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage 38 16 Aerobic oxidation of glucose to provide energy as ATP 40 17 Anaerobic oxidation of glucose by glycolysis to form ATP and lactate 42 18 Anaerobic glycolysis in red blood cells, 2,3-BPG (2,3-DPG) and the Bohr effect 44 Part 4 Carbohydrates 19 Carbohydrates 46 20 Absorption of carbohydrates and metabolism of galactose 48 21 Fate of glucose in liver: glycogenesis and lipogenesis 50 22 Fructose metabolism 52 23 Glucose homeostasis 54 24 Glucose-stimulated secretion of insulin from -cells 56 25 Regulation of glycogen metabolism 58 26 Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) and glycogen storage diseases 60 27 Insulin signal transduction and diabetes mellitus 62 28 Diabetes mellitus 64 29 Alcohol metabolism: hypoglycaemia, hyperlactataemia and steatosis 66 Part 5 Enzymes and regulation of pathways 30 Enzymes: nomenclature, kinetics and inhibitors 68 31 Regulation of enzyme activity 70 32 Regulation of glycolysis and Krebs cycle 72 33 Oxidation of fatty acids to produce ATP in muscle and ketone bodies in liver 74 34 Regulation of lipolysis, -oxidation, ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis 76 Part 6 Lipids and lipid metabolism 35 Structure of lipids 78 36 Phospholipids I: phospholipids and sphingolipids 80 37 Phospholipids II: micelles, liposomes, lipoproteins and membranes 82 38 Metabolism of carbohydrate to cholesterol 84 39 VLDL and LDL metabolism I: "forward" cholesterol transport 86 40 VLDL and LDL metabolism II: endogenous triacylglycerol transport 88 41 HDL metabolism: "reverse" cholesterol transport 90 42 Absorption and disposal of dietary triacylglycerols and cholesterol by chylomicrons 92 43 Steroid hormones: aldosterone, cortisol, androgens and oestrogens 94 Part 7 Metabolism of amino acids and porphyrins 44 Urea cycle and overview of amino acid catabolism 96 45 Non-essential and essential amino acids 98 46 Amino acid metabolism: to energy as ATP; to glucose and ketone bodies 100 47 Amino acid disorders: maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, cystinuria, alkaptonuria and albinism 102 48 Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism in health and disease 104 49 Products of tryptophan and histidine metabolism 106 50 Haem, bilirubin and porphyria 108 Part 8 Vitamins 51 Fat-soluble vitamins I: vitamins A and D 110 52 Fat-soluble vitamins II: vitamins E and K 112 53 Water-soluble vitamins I: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and pantothenate 114 54 Water-soluble vitamins II: pyridoxal phosphate (B6) 116 55 Water-soluble vitamins III: folate and vitamin B12 118 56 Water-soluble vitamins IV: biotin and vitamin C 120 Part 9 Molecular biology 57 The cell cycle 122 58 Pyrimidine metabolism 124 59 Purine metabolism 126 60 Structure of DNA 128 61 The "central dogma" of molecular biology 130 62 Organisation of DNA in chromosomes 132 63 Replication of DNA (part 1) 134 64 Replication of DNA (part 2) 136 65 DNA damage and repair 138 66 Transcription of DNA to make messenger RNA (part 1) 140 67 Transcription of DNA to make messenger RNA (part 2) 142 68 Transcription of DNA to make transfer RNA 144 69 Transcription of DNA to make ribosomal RNA 146 70 Translation and protein synthesis 148 71 Comparison of DNA replication, DNA transcription and protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes 150 Part 10 Diagnostic clinical biochemistry 72 Diagnostic clinical biochemistry (with Dr J. W. Wright FRCP, MRCPath) 152 Index 154

About the Author

J. G. Salway is the author of Medical Biochemistry at a Glance, 3rd Edition, published by Wiley.


I have taught biochemistry to medical students and toundergraduates and graduate students, at both Temple UniversitySchool of Medicine and at Case Western Reserve University, since1968, so that I have had a great deal of experience in the fieldand have a feel for what works well for medical students. Medical Biochemistry at a Glance would be an excellent bookfor USMLE Step 1. In my experience, medical students (andpre-medical students) would greatly benefit from reading it inpreparation for the exam. This compares very well with Lippincott s Biochemistry - thishas the right price and approach to compete with Lippincott for aless expensive and more accessible alternative to the larger textbooks that are out there. I like the way it combines the metabolic pathways and principles insuch a creative fashion, and the metabolism sections are among thebest I have read and the easiest to understand. Metabolism is avery complicated subject and, in my experience, most teachers ofthe subject would really benefit from your text. ( Richard W.Hanson, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine)

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