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Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment


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Table of Contents

A Introduction.- 1 Environmental Pollution.- 2 Sources, Pathways and Reservoirs.- 3 Aquatic Ecosystems.- B Toxic Metals.- 1 Metals.- 1.1 Classification of the Elements.- 1.2 Classification of Metals.- 1.3 Trace Metal Species in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Trace Metals and Organic Life.- 2.1 Trace Elements Essential to Human Life.- 2.2 Deficiency and Oversupply.- 2.3 Metal Toxicity.- 2.4 Health Hazard Due to Certain Trace Elements.- 2.5 Accumulation of Toxic Substances in the Aquatic Food Chain.- 2.6 Catastrophic Episodes of Metal Poisonings.- 2.6.1 Mercury Poisoning.- 2.6.2 Cadmium Poisoning.- 2.6.3 Lead Poisoning.- 2.6.4 Chromium Poisoning.- 2.6.5 Arsenic Poisoning.- 2.7 Recent Studies on Metal Intoxication.- 3 Water Quality Criteria: Standards.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Criteria Development.- 3.3 Water Quality Criteria.- 4 The Sources of Metal Pollution.- 4.1 Geologic Weathering.- 4.2 Mining Effluents.- 4.3 Industrial Effluents.- 4.4 Domestic Effluents and Urban Stormwater Runoff.- 4.4.1 Domestic Effluents.- 4.4.2 Urban Storm Water Runoff.- 4.4.3 Spoil Heaps.- 4.5 Metal Inputs from Rural Areas.- 4.6 Atmospheric Sources.- 4.7 Special Sources.- 4.8 Multi-Source Effects.- 5 Metal Analysis.- 5.1 Media of Pollution Assessment.- 5.2 Sampling and Analytic Methods.- 5.2.1 Sampling.- 5.2.2 Analytic Methods.- C Metal Concentrations in River, Lake, and Ocean Waters.- 1 Distribution of Major Ions.- 1.1 Natural Salt Concentrations.- 1.2 Man-Made Contamination.- 2 Chemical Conditions for Trace Metals in Natural Waters.- 2.1 Chemical Speciation in Freshwater and Seawater.- 2.1.1 Analysis of Trace Metal Speciation.- 2.1.2 Freshwater/Seawater Model.- 2.2 Redox Conditions in Natural Waters.- 3 Trace Metals in Seawater.- 3.1 Natural Distribution.- 3.2 Man-Made Effects.- 3.2.1 Atmospheric Input of Metals.- 3.2.2 Metal Input from Sewage Effluents.- 4 Trace Metals in Inland Waters.- 4.1 Natural Contents.- 4.2 Metal Pollution in River Water: Regional Examples.- 4.2.1 Heavy Metal Pollution in United States Water Systems.- 4.2.2 Metal Pollution in Inland and Coastal Waters of Great Britain.- 4.2.3 Heavy Metals in River Water of the Federal Republic of Germany.- 4.2.4 Metals in Waters of the People's Republic of China.- 4.2.5 Heavy Metals in River Water of the U.S.S.R.- 4.2.6 Heavy Metals in Waters of Japan.- 4.3 Metal Transport in Freshwater Systems.- 4.3.1 Water Discharge and Metal Transport.- 4.3.2 Annual Cycles of Metal Transport.- D Metal Pollution Assessment from Sediment Analysis.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Soluble/Solid Equilibrium.- 1.2 Surface Samples and Sediment Cores.- 2 Metal Investigations on Aquatic Sediments.- 2.1 Sampling and Storage.- 2.1.1 Soils and Sediments.- 2.1.2 Grab and Sore Samplers.- 2.1.3 Bottom Sediment Traps.- 2.1.4 Suspended Materials.- 2.1.5 Recovery of Pore Waters.- 2.1.6 Storage.- 2.2 The Mechanical Sediment Analysis.- 2.3 Mineralogical Analysis.- 2.4 Chemical Analysis of Nutrient Components (C-N-P).- 2.4.1 Determinations of Oxidizable Matter (Organic Carbon) by the Chromic Acid Method.- 2.4.2 Determination of Kjeldahl Nitrogen.- 2.4.3 Determination of Total Phosphorus.- 2.5 Sediment Digestion in Metal Analysis.- 2.5.1 Hydrofluoric Acid Decomposition.- 2.5.2 Hydrochloric-Nitric Acid (Aqua Regia) Decomposition or Digestion by Nitric Acid.- 2.5.3 Lithium Metaborate Fusion (with Simultaneous Determination of Silica).- 2.5.4 Transfer of Solid Suspensions into Graphite Cuvettes.- 3 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Aquatic Sediments.- 4 Grain-Size Effects.- 4.1 Grain-Size Dependencies of Trace Metal Concentrations.- 4.2 Reduction of Grain-Size Effects.- 4.2.1 Extrapolation from Grain-Size Distribution.- 4.2.2 Metal Concentrations vs Surface Area.- 4.2.3 Separation of Clay/Silt and Fine Sand Fractions by Sieving.- 4.2.4 Separation of the Pelitic Fraction (< 2 ?m) in Settling Tubes.- 4.2.5 Treatment with Dilute Acids (Hydrochloric Acid, Nitric Acid).- 4.2.6 Mineral Separation: Quartz Correction Method.- 4.2.7 Comparison with "Conservative" Elements.- 4.2.8 The Relative Atomic Variations of Elements.- 5 Factors Controlling the Distribution of Metals in Aquatic Sediments.- 6 Natural Metal Content-Civilizational Accumulation.- 6.1 Average Shale: Global Standard Value.- 6.2 Fossil Lake Sediments: Standards Regarding Environmental Data.- 6.3 Fossil Fluviatile Deposits: Regional Influences.- 6.4 Short, Dated Sediment Cores: 200 Years of Industrial Development.- 6.5 Recent Lake Deposits in Relatively Unpolluted Areas.- 6.6 Metals in Suspended Matter: Background Values in Storm Water.- 6.7 Background Values and Nonpoint Sources.- 7 Lake Sediments as Indicators of Heavy Metal Pollution.- 7.1 Interference: Geochemical Background and Man's Impact.- 7.2 Metal Pollution in Lake Sediments (Examples).- 7.3 Metal Contamination Recorded in Dated Sedimentary Cores.- 7.4 Mercury Poisoning of Lakes.- 7.4.1 Sources of Mercury Pollution.- 7.4.2 Swedish Lakes.- 7.4.3 Canadian Lakes: Clay Lake.- 7.4.4 Laurentian Great Lakes.- 8 Metal Pollution in River Sediments.- 8.1 Geochemical Reconnaissance of Mercury.- 8.2 Stream Sediments: a Response to Environmental Contamination.- 8.3 Heavy Metal Enrichment of River Sediments by Man-Made Influences.- 9 Assessing Metal Pollution in the Sea by Sediment Study.- 9.1 Mercury Contamination-Forms of Metal Enrichment in Coastal Sediments.- 9.1.1 Minamata-Industrial Metal Contamination in Japanese Coastal Waters.- 9.1.2 Firth of Clyde-Sewage Sludge Disposal.- 9.1.3 Southern Californian Coast-Sewer Outfalls and Atmospheric Influences.- 9.1.4 New Haven-Unregulated Effluent Discharge.- 9.2 Marine Waste Deposits in the New York Metropolitan Region.- 9.3 Industrial Effluents in New Bedford Harbor, Mass.- 9.4 Heavy Metal Enrichment in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.1 Metal Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.- 9.4.2 Metal Pollution in the North Sea.- 9.4.3 Metal Contamination of the Baltic Sea.- 9.4.4 Other Restricted Basins-Fjords.- 9.5 Heavy Metal in Estuarine Sediments.- 9.5.1 The Estuarine Environment.- 9.5.2 The Rhine Estuary.- 9.5.3 The Elbe Estuary.- 9.5.4 Mixing Processes.- E Metal Transfer Between Solid and Aqueous Phases.- 1 Residence Times of Metals in Aquatic Systems.- 2 Types of Metal Association in Sediments.- 2.1 Classification of Chemical Phases in Sediment.- 2.2 Heavy Metals in Detrital Minerals.- 2.3 Heavy Metal Precipitation.- 2.3.1 Hydroxides.- 2.3.2 Sulfides.- 2.3.3 Carbonates.- 2.4 Cation Exchange and Adsorption.- 2.5 Sorption onto Clay Minerals.- 2.6 Sorption and Coprecipitation on Hydrous Fe/Mn-Oxides and Fe-Sulfides.- 2.6.1 Formation of Hydrous Mn and Fe Oxides.- 2.6.2 Sorption of Heavy Metals onto Fe/Mn Oxides.- 2.6.3 Coprecipitation of Trace Elements with Iron Sulfides.- 2.7 Metal Associations with Organic Substances.- 2.7.1 Organic Substances in Natural Waters.- 2.7.2 Sorption and Complexation of Metals by Humic Substances.- 2.7.3 Coagulation and Flocculation of Metal-Organic Matter.- 2.7.4 Associations of Metal-Organic Compounds to Sediments.- 2.8 Sorption of Trace Elements on Carbonates and Phosphates.- 3 Metal Accumulation in Aquatic Sediments-Interactions and Effects of Various Processes and Sinks.- 3.1 Hydroxidic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.2 Organic Coatings on Clay Minerals.- 3.3 Interactions Between Hydrous Metal Oxides, Organic Substances, Carbonate, and Phosphate.- 3.4 Significance of the Different Sinks in Natural Systems.- 3.5 Non-Conservative Effects of Trace Metals in Estuaries.- 4 Determination of Chemical Phases in Natural and Polluted Sediments.- 4.1 Proportion of the Individual Types of Metal Associations in Natural and Polluted Aquatic Sediments.- 4.2 Grain Size and Chronological Variations; Phase Concentration Factor.- 5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediments.- 5.1 Saltwater/Sediment Interactions.- 5.1.1 Desorption Experiments.- 5.1.2 Estuary-Sediment Boundary.- 5.2 Redox Changes and Metal Release.- 5.2.1 Chemical Factors Affecting Metal Distribution in Interstitial Water.- 5.2.2 Physical Processes Affecting Metal Release from Pore Water.- 5.3 Metal Release by Acidic Water.- 5.3.1 Acid Mine Drainage.- 5.3.2 Acid Precipitation.- 5.4 Mobilization of Metals by Organic Complexing Agents.- 5.5 Mobilization of Heavy Metals by Microbial Activity.- 5.5.1 Microbial Interactions in Natural Environments.- 5.5.2 Bacterial Leaching of Metals.- 5.5.3 Microbial Action in the Mercury Cycle.- 5.5.4 Bacterial Methylation of Arsenic, Lead, and Selenium.- F Heavy Metals in Aquatic Organisms.- 1 Physico-Chemical Influences on the Toxicity and the Uptake of Heavy Metals with Respect to Organisms.- 1.1 Temperature and Oxygen Content.- 1.2 Water Hardness.- 1.3 Organic Compounds.- 1.4 pH Values.- 1.5 Salinity.- 2 Biologic Factors Affecting Heavy Metal Concentrations in Aquatic Organisms.- 2.1 General Physiologic Behavior.- 2.2 Life Cycle and Life History of the Organism.- 2.3 Seasonal Variations of Metal Content in Organisms.- 2.4 Species-Specific and Individual Variability.- 2.5 Contamination by Food and Intestine Content.- 3 Heavy Metal Enrichment in Limnic and Marine Organisms at Different Trophic Levels.- 3.1 Autotrophic Organisms.- 3.1.1 Phytoplankton.- 3.1.2 Marine Macroalgae.- 3.1.3 Freshwater Algae.- 3.1.4 Mosses.- 3.1.5 Higher Water Plants.- 3.2 Heterotrophic Organisms.- 3.2.1 Zooplankton.- 3.2.2 Bivalves.- 3.2.3 Higher Marine Crustaceans.- 3.2.4 Freshwater Crustaceans.- 3.2.5 Marine and Freshwater Fish.- 3.3 The Mobilization of Heavy Metals from Sediment by Aquatic Biota.- 3.4 Food Chain Enrichment in Aquatic Life.- G Trace Metals in Water Purification Processes.- 1 Heavy Metal Removal for the Production of Drinking Water.- 1.1 Obtaining Water by Bank Filtration.- 1.2 Artificial Recharge of Groundwater by Land Spreading and Injection.- 1.3 Direct Water Purification by Traditional Physico-Chemical Treatment (PCT) and Related Advanced Methods.- 1.3.1 Traditional Removal of Trace Metals by Pre-Clarification, Chlorination, Flocculation, and Filtration.- 1.3.2 Heavy Metal Removal by Chemical Precipitation.- 1.3.3 Activated Carbon Filtration in Drinking Water Purification.- 1.3.4 Heavy Metal Removal by Ion Exchange.- 1.3.5 Potential Metal Enrichments in the Water Distribution System.- 2 Heavy Metals in Industrial and Domestic Effluents.- 2.1 Effluents from the Electroplating Industry.- 2.2 Mercury Removal from Chlor-Alkali Plant Effluents.- 2.3 Prevention and Control of Acidic Mine Drainage.- 2.4 Heavy Metals in Urban Drainage Systems-Biologic Treatment (BT).- 2.4.1 Metal Extraction in the Mechanical (Primary) Sedimentation Unit.- 2.4.2 Reduction of Metal Loads in the Biologic Stage.- 2.5 Tertiary Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater.- 3 Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludges.- 3.1 Land Application of Sewage Sludges.- 3.2 Impact of Heavy Metals on Groundwater Quality.- 3.3 Sewage Sludge Disposal to the Sea.- 3.4 Incineration of Sewage Sludge.- H Concluding Remarks.- 1 Disposal Versus Reuse.- 2 Alternative Materials.- References.

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