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Microbiology of Marine Food Products

In recent years,consumption ofseafood products has risen dramatically. Howev- er, along with the growth inconsumption, there has beengrowingenthusiasm for efforts to improve the qualityand the perceived safety of seafoods. This has culminated in'the debate on "Mandatory Seafood Inspection." While quality and safety are the principal issues behind the inspection debate, microbiology is one of the principal sciences associated with quality and safety. All foodcommodities have their owndistinctive microbiology.However, of all the food commodities,seafoods have one ofthe most, ifnot the most, diverse and complex microbiologies. Unlike meat or poultry products where only a few species are represented in each group, the term seafoods encompasses hundreds ot genera and species. Concems associated with mollusks are often quite differ- ent from those associated with finfish or crustaceans. Other factors contributing to the microbiological complexity are the range of environmental habitat (freshwater to saltwater; tropical waters to arctic waters; pelagic swimmers to sessile bottom dwellers) and processing practices (iced fresh products to com- mercially sterile canned products; hand labor to mechanized processes). This bookprovides acomprehensiveexaminationofmicrobiological quality and safety concems of seafood from harvest through processing. Many of the chapters are the mostcomprehensive reviews to date. Aconcertedeffort has been made to incorporate discussions on topics that are both timely and timeless.
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Table of Contents

1 Seafood Quality.- 1. Microbiology of Finfish and Finfish Processing.- Harvesting and Onboard Handling.- Fishing Vessel Sanitation.- Processing.- Preservatives.- References.- 2. Microbiology of Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish.- Biology of the Bivalves.- Public Health Concerns.- Microflora of Bivalves at Harvest.- Shellstock Harvesting and Handling.- Bivalve Processing.- Heat Processing.- Indicators of Spoilage.- Summary.- References.- 3. Microbiology of Crustacea Processing: Crabs.- Harvest and Utilization.- Microbiological Flora.- Processing and Microbiological Quality Control.- Summary.- References.- 4. Microbiology of Crustacean Processing: Shrimp, Crawfish, and Prawns.- Naturally Occurring Microflofa.- Yeasts, Molds, Fungi, and Viruses.- Microbiological Changes Through the Distribution System.- Microorganisms Associated with Seafood Spoilage.- Microorganisms of Public Health Concern.- Effect of Freezing on Micororganisms.- Retail Handling Procedures.- Simulated Retail Procedures.- Ice-Only Service Cases.- Refrigerated Display Case.- Retail Display Summary.- References.- 5. Microbiology of Mince, Surimi, and Value-Added Seafoods.- Mince.- Surimi.- Value-Added Seafoods.- General Microbiological Aspects of Mince, Surimi, and Value-Added Products.- References.- 6. U.S. Seafood Inspection and HACCP.- Food and Drug Administration (FDA).- U.S. Department of Commerce (USDC).- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).- Department of Defense (DOD).- State Seafood Inspection Activities.- Inspection Approaches.- What Is HACCP?.- How Is HACCP Applied?.- HACCP Beyond Microbiology.- HACCP Applications to Marine Food Products.- HACCP Sampling Procedures.- Appendix: Glossary of Terms.- References.- 2 Seafood Safety.- 7. Indicators and Alternate Indicators of Growing Water Quality.- Historical Perspectives.- Emerging Environmental Issues That Question Basic Assumptions.- Sources and Composition of Indicator Organisms in Shellfish Growing Waters.- Influence of the Estuarine-Marine Environment on the Fate of Allochthonous Indicators of Fecal Contamination.- Indicator Systems.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8. Viruses in Seafoods.- Families of Human Enteric Viruses Associated with Pollution of Marine Waters with Human Feces.- Human Enteric Viral Pathogens Associated with Processing Distribution and Preparation of Seafoods.- Summary of Reported Seafood-Associated Viral Disease Outbreaks 1973-1987.- References.- 9. Seafood-Transmitted Zoonoses in the United States: The Fishes, the Dishes, and the Worms.- Cestodes.- Digeneans.- Nematodes.- Acanthocephalans.- Other Metazoan Agents.- Risks.- Aquaculture and Parasites.- Prevention of Human Infections.- Public Education.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 10. Nonindigenous Bacterial Pathogens.- Open Water Harvest and Pollution.- Pollution and Aquaculture Systems.- Relative Incidence of Enterics in Seafood Illness.- Clostridium botulinum.- Listeria monocytogenes.- Staphylococcus aureus.- Salmonella.- Shigella.- Conclusions.- References.- 11. Indigenous Pathogens: Vibrionaceae.- Vibrio.- Aeromonas.- Plesiomonas.- Summary.- References.- 12. Natural Toxins.- The Known Seafood Toxin Syndromes.- Management.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 13. Scombroid Poisoning.- Clinical Aspects.- Epidemiology of Scombroid Fish Poisoning.- Formation of Histamine in Fish.- Histamine Toxicity.- Analysis of Histamine in Fish.- Histamine Regulation (U.S.).- References.- 3 Special Processing and Packaging.- 14. Principles of Pasteurization and Minimally Processed Seafoods.- Pasteurization.- Minimally Processed Seafoods (Sous Vide Seafood Products).- Effect of Container Type.- Common Problems.- Concept of Microbial Survivors in a Batch.- Use of Steam Tunnel Processes to Reduce Microbial Levels.- Clostridium botulinum Type E.- Appendix: Explanation of Terms.- References.- 15. Modified Atmosphere Packaging.- Proposed Mechanisms of Action.- MAP Storage and Gutted Fish.- Studies with Fresh Fillets and Steaks.- Characterization and Shift of Microflora.- Clostridium botulinum.- C. botulinum and Vacuum Packaging.- MAP Storage Followed by Air Holding.- MAP Combination with Other Preservatives.- Carbonic Acid Dips and MAP.- Biochemical Indicators.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 16. Shellfish Depuration.- History of Depuration.- Practical Applications of Depuration.- Physiology of Shellfish Contamination and Elimination.- Regulations Governing Shellfish Depuration.- Depuration Plant Design.- Water Disinfection Procedures.- System Parameters.- Plant Operations.- Current and Future Research.- References.- 17. Irradiation.- Historical Aspects.- Utilization of Irradiation in the Seafood Industry.- Types of Irradiation Used in Seafoods.- Irradiation Effect on Microorganisms in Seafood.- The Future of Irradiation in the Seafood Industry.- References.

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