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National Forest Inventories
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Forest inventories throughout the world have evolved gradually over time. The content as well as the concepts and de?nitions employed are constantly adapted to the users' needs. Advanced inventory systems have been established in many countries within Europe, as well as outside Europe, as a result of development work spanning several decades, in some cases more than 100 years. With continuously increasing international agreements and commitments, the need for information has also grown drastically, and reporting requests have become more frequent and the content of the reports wider. Some of the agreements made at the international level have direct impacts on national economies and international decisions, e. g. , the Kyoto Protocol. Thus it is of utmost importance that the forest information supplied is collected and analysed using sound scienti?c principles and that the information from different countries is comparable. European National Forest Inventory (NFI) teams gathered in Vienna in 2003 to discuss the new challenges and the measures needed to get data users to take full advantage of existing NFIs. As a result, the European National Forest Inventory Network (ENFIN), a network of NFIs, was established. The ENFIN members decided to apply for funding for meetings and collaborative activities. COST- European Cooperation in Science and Technology - provided the necessary ?n- cial means for the realization of the program.
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Table of Contents

Preface.- Acknowledgements.- List of Abbreviations.- 1. Introduction. 1.1 History of NFIs. 1.2 Uses of NFI data. 1.2.1 The use of NFI for national forestry and environment planning and policy. 1.2.2 The use of NFI data for international reporting. 1.3 Harmonising forest resource information. 1.4 Objectives and overview of COST Action E43. 1.4.1 Structure and detailed objectives of COST Action E4. 1.4.2 Participating countries and institutions. 1.4.3 The approach taken. 1.4.4 The primary benefits of COST Action E4. 1.5 COST Action E43 contributions and the structure of the book. References; E. Tomppo et al.- 2. Comparison of National Forest Inventories. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Diversity in definitions. 2.2.1 Forest area. 2.2.2 Growing stock volume. 2.3 Diversity of sampling designs. 2.4 Diversity of sample plot configurations. 2.5 Diversity of increment and drain. 2.6 Error estimation. 2.7 Use of COST Action E43 reference definitions in country NFIs. 2.8 Discussion. References; M. Lawrence et al.- 3. National Forest Inventories: Prospects for Harmonised International Reporting. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Standardisation or harmonisation. 3.3 Constructing reference definitions. 3.4 Constructing bridges. 3.4.1 An expansive bridge for forest area. 3.4.2 A neutral bridge for forest type classification in Italy. 3.4.3 An expansive bridge for above-ground biomass. 3.4.4 A reductive bridge for forest structural diversity. 3.5 Summary. References; R.E. McRoberts et al.- 4. Summary of Accomplishments. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Reference definitions and the comparability of definitions. 4.3 Bridges for converting estimates. 4.4 National forest inventories and harmonisation of reporting. 4.4.1 Harmonised forest resources reporting. 4.4.2 Harmonised greenhouse gas reporting. 4.4.3 Harmonised biodiversity reporting. 4.5 Knowledge sharing to support future work. References; E. Tomppo et al.- National Forest Inventories Reports. 1. Austria. 1.1 Development of the Austrian National Forest Inventory. 1.2 The use and users of the results. 1.3 Current estimates. 1.4 Sampling design. 1.5 Estimation techniques. 1.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 1.7 Current and future prospects. References; T. Gschwantner et al.- 2. Belgium (Walloon Region). 2.1 Development of the regional forest inventory (RFI) in Wallonia. 2.2 The use and users of the results. 2.3 Current estimates. 2.4 Sampling design. 2.5 Estimation techniques and data processing. 2.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 2.7 Current and future prospects. 2.8 Cost Action E43 and its influence on RFI. References; J. Rondeux et al.- 3. Brazil. 3.1 Development of the national forest inventory of Brazil. 3.2 The uses and users of the results. 3.3 Methodological framework. 3.4 NFI associated programs. 3.5 Institutional framework and strategies for implementation. 3.6 Future prospects. References; J. Freitas et al.- 4. Canada. 4.1 Development of Canada's National Forest Inventory. 4.2 The uses and users of the results. 4.3 Design of Canada's National Forest Inventory. 4.4 Estimation techniques. 4.5 Governance. 4.6 Future prospects. References; M.D.Gillis et al.- 5. China. 5.1 Development of China's National Forest Inventory. 5.2 The use and users of the results. 5.3 Current estimates. 5.4 Sampling design. 5.5 Estimation techniques. 5.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 5.7 Current and future prospective. References; X. Lei et al.- 6. Croatia. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 History of Forest Inventory in Croatia. 6.3 Development of the Croatian National Forest Inventory. 6.4 Sampling design. 6.5 Estimation techniques. 6.6 Data management and reporting. References; M. Vedris et al.- 7. Cyprus. 7.1 Development of forest inventories in Cyprus. 7.2 The use and the users of the results. 7.3 Current estimates. 7.4 Sampling design. References; L. Loizou.- 8. Czech Republic. 8.1 Development of the Czech National Forest Inventory. 8.2 The use and users of the results. 8.3 Current estimates. 8.4 Sampling design. 8.5 Management. 8.6 Estimation procedures. 8.7 Harmonized estimates. 8.8 Current status and future prospects. References; M. Cerny et al.- 9. Denmark. 9.1 Development of the National Forest Inventory of Denmark. 9.2 The use and the users of the results. 9.3 Current estimates. 9.4 Sampling design. 9.5 Estimation techniques. References; A. Bastrup-Birk et al.- 10. Estonia. 10.1 Development of Estonian National Forest Inventory. 10.2 The use and users of the results. 10.3 Current estimates. 10.4 Sampling design. 10.5 Estimation techniques. 10.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 10.7 Reporting and prospects. References; V. Adermann.- 11. Finland. 11.1 Development of Finland's National Forest Inventory. 11.2 The use ad users of the results. 11.3 Current estimates. 11.4 Sampling design and field measurements. 11.5 Estimation Techniques. 11.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 11.7 Current and future prospects. 11.8 The influence of COST Action E43 and related projects. References; E. Tomppo, T. Tuomainen.- 12. France. 12.1 Development of France's National Forest Inventory. 12.2 The use and users of the results. 12.3 Current estimates. 12.4 Sampling design. 12.5 Estimation techniques. 12.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 12.7 Current and future prospects. References; N. Robert et al.- 13. Germany. 13.1 Development of the German National Forest Inventory. 13.2 The use and users of the results. 13.3 Current estimates. 13.4 Sampling design. 13.5 Management. 13.6 Estimation techniques. 13.7 Options for harmonized reporting. 13.8 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 13.9 Current and future prospects. References; H. Polley et al.- 14. Great Britain. 14.1 Development of the Great Britain's National Forest Inventory. 14.2 The use and users of the results. 14.3 Current estimates. 14.4 Sampling design. 14.5 Management. 14.6 Estimation techniques. 14.7 Options for harmonized reporting. 14.8 Current and future prospects. References; M. Lawrence, G. Bull.- 15. Greece. 15.1 Development of the Greek National Forest Inventory. 15.2 General use of the results. 15.3 Current estimates. 15.4 Sampling design. 15.5 Estimation techniques. 15.6 Current and future prospects. References; I. Meliadis et al.- 16. Hungary. 16.1 Development of the Hungarian National Forest Inventory. 16.2 The use and users of the results. 16.3 Current estimates. 16.4 Sampling design. 16.5 Estimation techniques. 16.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 16.7 Current and future prospects. References; L. Kolozs, A. Szepesi.- 17. Iceland. 17.1 Development of Iceland's National Forest Inventory. 17.2 The use and users of the results. 17.3 Current estimates. 17.4 Sampling design. 17.5 Estimation techniques. 17.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 17.7 Future prospects. References; A. Snorrason.- 18. Ireland. 18.1 Development of the Irish National Forest Inventory. 18.2 The use and users of the results. 18.3 Current estimates. 18.4 Sampling design. 18.5 Estimation techniques. 18.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 18.7 Future prospects. 18.8 Influence of COST Action E43. References; C. O'Donovan, J. Redmond.- 19. Italy. 19.1 Development of the Italian National Forest Inventory. 19.2 The use and users of the results. 19.3 Current estimates. 19.4 Sampling design. 19.5 Management. 19.6 Estimation techniques. 19.7 Options for harmonized reporting. 19.8 Future prospects. References; P. Gasparini et al.- 20. Japan. 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Forest inventory under the Forest Planning System. 20.3 Forest Resources Monitoring Survey. 20.4 International reporting. References; Y. Hirata et al.- 21. Latvia. 21.1 Development of Latvia's National Forest Inventory. 21.2 The use and users of the results. 21.3 Definitions of forest and growing stock. 21.4 Sampling design. 21.5 Estimation techniques. References; J. Jansons, I. Licite.- 22. Lithuania. 22.1 Development of the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory. 22.2 The use and users of the results. 22.3 Current estimates. 22.4 Sampling design. 22.5 Estimation techniques. 22.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 22.7 Current and future prospects. 22.8 Implementation of COST Action E43 results. References; A. Kuliesis et al.- 23. Luxembourg. 23.1 Development of the national forest inventory in Luxembourg. 23.2 The use and users of the results. 23.3 Current estimates. 23.4 Sampling design. 23.5 Estimation techniques. 23.6 Data processing and analysis. 23.7 Current and future prospects. References; J. Rondeux, M. Wagner.- 24. The Netherlands. 24.1 Development of the Netherlands national forest inventory. 24.2 Sampling design of NFI5. 24.3 Options for harmonized reporting. References; W.P. Daamen, G.M. Dirkse.- 25. New Zealand. 25.1 Development of New Zealand's National Forest Inventory. 25.2 Uses and users of NFI information. 25.3 Current estimates. 25.4 Sampling design. 25.5 Estimation techniques. 25.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 25.7 Current and future prospective. 25.8 Influence of COST Action E43. References; P.N. Beets et al.- 26. Norway. 26.1 Development of Norway's National Forest Inventory. 26.2 The use and users of the results. 26.3 Current estimates. 26.4 Sampling design. 26.5 Estimation techniques. 26.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 26.7 Future prospects. 26.8 The influence of COST Action E43 and related projects. References; S.M. Tomter et al.- 27. Poland. 27.1 Introduction. 27.2 The use and users of the results. 27.3 Sampling design of the new NFI. 27.4 Management. 27.5 Integration of the NFI and forest monitoring. References; R. Michalak, S. Zajaczkowski.- 28. Portugal. 28.1 Development of Portugal's National Forest Inventory. 28.2 The use and users of NFI results. 28.3 Design of the present NFI5. 28.4 Estimation techniques. 28.5 Current and future prospective. 28.6 Options for estimates based on reference definitions. 28.7 The influence of COST Action E43 and related projects. References; Appendix 28.1. S. Barreiro et al.- 29. The Republic of Korea. 29.1 Development of the national forest inventory of Korea. 29.2 The uses and users of the results. 29.3 Current estimates. 29.4 Sampling design. 29.5 Management. 29.6 Future prospects. References; S.-H. Kim et al.- 30. Romania. 30.1 Development of Romania's National Forest Inventory. 30.2 The use of the NFI information. 30.3 Current definitions. 30.4 Sampling design. 30.5 Management. 30.6 Estimation techniques. 30.7 Current and future prospects. References; G. Marin et al.- 31. Russian Federation. 31.1 Development of the Russian National Forest Inventory. 31.2 The use and users of the results. 31.3 Sampling design and methodology. 31.4 Management. 31.5 Current status and future perspective. References; O.N. Solontsov.- 32. Slovak Republic. 32.1 Slovakia's National Forest Inventory. 32.2 The use and users of the results. 32.3 Current estimates. 32.4 Sampling design. 32.5 Data processing. 32.6 Structure of outputs. 32.7 Information system. 32.8 Conclusions. References; M. Moravcik et al.- 33. Slovenia. 33.1 Development of forest inventories in Slovenia. 33.2 The use and users of the 2007 FECS results. 33.3 Current estimates. 33.4 National Forest Inventory - the 2007 FECS. 33.5 Estimation techniques. 33.6 Current and future prospects. 33.7 COST Action E43 effects on the 2007 FECS. Acknowledgements. References; G. Kusar et al.- 34. Spain. 34.1 Development of Spain's National Forest Inventory. 34.2 The use and users of the results. 34.3 Current estimates. 34.4 Sampling design. 34.5 Estimation techniques. 34.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 34.7 Current and future prospects. References; I. Alberdi Asensio et al.- 35. Sweden. 35.1 Development of Sweden's National Forest Inventory. 35.2 Uses and users of NFI information. 35.3 Current estimates. 35.4 Sampling design. 35.5 Estimation. 35.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 35.7 Current and future prospects. 35.8 Influence of COST Action E43 on Swedish NFI. References; A.-L. Axelsson et al.- 36. Switzerland. 36.1 Development of Switzerland's National Forest Inventory. 36.2 The use and users of the result. 36.3 Current estimates. 36.4 Sampling design. 36.5 Estimation techniques. 36.6 Options for harmonized reporting. 36.7 Current and future prospects. References; A. Lanz et al.- 37. United States of America (USA). 37.1 Development of the national forest inventory of the USA. 37.2 The uses and users of the results. 37.3 Current estimates. 37.4 Sampling design. 37.5 Estimation techniques. 37.6 Harmonization. 37.7 Future prospects. References; R.E. McRoberts et al.-

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