Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems: An Overview Natural Treatment Processes Project Development References Planning, Feasibility Assessment, and Site Selection Concept Evaluation Site Identification Site Evaluation Site and Process Selection References Basic Process Responses and Interactions Water Management Biodegradable Organics Organic Priority Pollutants and CECs Pathogens Metals Nutrients References Design of Wastewater Pond Systems Introduction Facultative Ponds Partial-Mix Aerated Ponds Complete-Mix Aerated Pond Systems ASM1, ASM2, and ASM3 Models Anaerobic Ponds Controlled Discharge Pond System Complete Retention Pond System Hydrograph Controlled Release High-Performance Aerated Pond Systems (Rich Design) Proprietary Systems Nitrogen Removal in Lagoons Modified High-Performance Aerated Pond Systems for Nitrification and Denitrification Nitrogen Removal in Ponds Coupled with Wetlands and Gravel Bed Nitrification Filters Control of Algae and Design of Settling Basins Hydraulic Control of Ponds Removal of Phosphorus Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products and Antibiotic Resistant Genes References Pond Modifications for Polishing Effluents Solids Removal Methods Modifications and Additions to Typical Designs Performance Comparisons with other Removal Methods References Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands Process Description Wetland Components Performance Expectations Potential Applications Planning and Design Hydraulic Design Procedures Thermal Aspects Design Models and Effluent Quality Prediction Physical Design and Construction Operation and Maintenance Costs Troubleshooting References Subsurface and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands Hydraulics of Subsurface Flow Wetlands Thermal Aspects Performance Expectations Design of SSF Wetlands Design Elements of Subsurface Flow Wetlands Alternative Application Strategies Potential Applications Case Study: Minoa, New York Nitrification Filter Bed Design of On-Site Systems Vertical-Flow Wetland Beds Resolutions Construction Considerations Operation and Maintenance Costs Troubleshooting References Land Treatment Systems Types of Land Treatment Systems Slow-Rate Land Treatment Design Objectives Overland Flow Systems Soil Aquifer Treatment Systems Phytoremediation Industrial Wastewater Management References Sludge Management and Treatment Sludge Quantity and Characteristics Stabilization and Dewatering Sludge Freezing Reed Beds Vermistabilization Comparison of Bed-Type Operations Composting Land Application and Surface Disposal of Biosolids References On-Site Wastewater Systems Types of On-Site Systems Effluent Disposal and Reuse Options Site Evaluation and Assessment Cumulative Areal Nitrogen Loadings Alternative Nutrient Removal Processes Disposal of Variously Treated Effluents in Soils Design Criteria for On-Site Disposal Alternatives Design Criteria for On-Site Reuse Alternatives Correction of Failed Systems Role of On-Site Management References Appendices Index
Ronald W. Crites is a senior associate with Brown and Caldwell in Davis, California. He consults on land treatment, water recycling and reuse, constructed wetlands, biosolids land application, decentralized wastewater treatment, and industrial wastewater land application systems. He received his BS in civil engineering from California State University in Chico and his MS and engineer's degree in sanitary engineering from Stanford University. He is the recipient of the 2009 Camp Applied Research Medal from Water Environment Federation for innovation in natural systems. He has 44 years of experience in wastewater treatment and reuse experience. He has authored or coauthored over 200 technical publications, including seven textbooks. He is a registered civil engineer in California, Hawaii, and Oregon. E. Joe Middlebrooks is a consulting environmental engineer based in Superior, Colorado. His 45 years as an engineering college professor as well as administrative positions, including dean of engineering at Utah State University, provided a platform for his extensive research and contributions to the environment engineering field. He received his BS and MS in civil engineering from the University of Florida and his PhD in civil engineering (environmental engineering) from Mississippi State University, followed by postdoctoral studies at the University of California at Berkeley. He has authored or coauthored 14 books and over 300 articles and reports. Robert K. Bastian is a senior environmental scientist in the office of wastewater management at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Washington, DC. He has extensive experience dealing with natural systems for wastewater treatment, wastewater, and biosolids reuse practices, and has coordinated the development of numerous agency policy and guidance documents, technology assessments, planning and design guidance documents, demonstration projects, and special studies related to treatment technologies and management practices involving natural systems. He received his BS and MS in biology, earth sciences, and mathematics from Bowling Green State University in Ohio and served as an officer in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Sherwood C. Reed (1932-2003) was an environmental engineer who was a leader in the planning and design of constructed wetlands and land treatment systems. He was the principal of Environmental Engineering Consultants (E.E.C.). He was a graduate of the University of Virginia (BSCE, 1959) and the University of Alaska (MS, 1968) and had a distinguished career with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, during which he spent most of his time at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, New Hampshire. He was the author of four textbooks and over 100 technical articles.
"This text provides a thorough explanation on how soil and plants can successfully sustain microbial populations in the treatment of wastewater and also how these processes produce lower amounts of residual solids, and use little or no chemicals... The book is of particular interest for practicing wastewater engineers and scientists involved in the planning , design, and operation of ponds, wetlands, land treatment, biosolids, and onsite soil-based treatment systems." -International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2014 "The first edition of Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems has long served as the basis for understanding the design and performance of natural systems in treating wastewater. This updated edition will only enhance its recognition as an industry standard." --Michael Hines, M.S., P.E., Founding Principal, Southeast Environmental Engineering, LLC "In an age of concrete, steel, and chemicals - and their associated carbon/energy footprint - it is with whole-hearted enthusiasm that I commend this reference text to any reader who is interested in the common-sense, economical, and environmentally friendly alternative of natural wastewater treatment." -Michael J. Cook, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality "... emphasizes a method to assess sites, soils, wastestreams, and available treatment options leading to appropriate solutions for wastewater systems. Designers, regulators, clients and the general public need a reliable reference addressing options and alternatives; this book provides that. ... provides a pathway to assure water and nutrients are utilized and recovered effectively and efficiently while protecting public health and the environment with options that are economically feasible." -A. Robert Rubin, NCSU - BAE, Emeritus Professor "The second edition of Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems contains sufficient technical material to be scientifcially sound, and yet it it easily comprehended. The authors do an excellent job of translating science and technology into readable text. The examples incorporate lessons learned from operating systems into easily readable text. Each of the technologies addressed utilize a sound desing approach, and this approach is vital to understanding the natural system approach. The four authors collaborated in the development of text that reads as though from a single voice." -Vadose Zone Journal, December 2015