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Nonprofit Kit for Dummies 5th Edition


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1 About This Book 1 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 4 Part 1: Getting Started with Nonprofits 5 Chapter 1: Getting to Know the World of Nonprofit Organizations 7 What Is a Nonprofit? 8 Comparing for-profits to nonprofits 8 Introducing the one and only 501(c)(3) 9 Knowing Your Mission Before Entering the Nonprofit World 10 Setting up a nonprofit 11 Making plans and being flexible 11 Being Inspired and Inspiring Volunteers 12 Finding the Resources to Do the Job 13 Seeing where the contributions come from 13 Fundraising for fun and profit 14 Chapter 2: Deciding to Start a Nonprofit 15 Weighing the Pros and Cons of Starting a Nonprofit 16 Doing Your Homework First 17 Assessing the competition 17 Finding people to help you 18 Figuring out how you'll pay the bills 19 Taking a long, hard look in the mirror 20 Planning - and then planning some more 20 Understanding Nonprofit Ownership 21 Benefiting the public 21 Being accountable 22 Looking at the Many Varieties of Nonprofits 23 Identifying nonprofits by their numbers 24 Rules and regulations to add to your file 25 Comparing Nonprofits and For-Profits 28 How they're alike 28 How they differ 28 Using a Fiscal Sponsor: An Alternative Approach 30 Examining common details of a fiscal sponsorship relationship 31 Finding a fiscal sponsor 32 Chapter 3: Creating Your Mission Statement 35 Mission Statement Basics 36 Homing in on your purpose 36 Specifying your beneficiaries 38 Explaining how you'll accomplish your goals 38 Imagining your future with a vision statement 38 Keeping your focus narrow at first and broadening over time 39 Keeping your statement short and sweet 39 Writing the Mission Statement 40 Gathering input from your group 40 Drafting the statement 41 Living by Your Mission 42 Chapter 4: Incorporating and Applying for Tax Exemption 43 Creating a New Entity: The Corporation 44 Following your state law 44 Understanding your corporation's governing documents 45 Deciding whether to have members in your corporation 46 Finding the best name 46 Writing the Articles of Incorporation 47 Crafting a heading 48 Article I 48 Article II 48 Article III 48 Article IV 49 Article V 50 Article VI 50 Article VII 50 Article VIII 50 Signed, sealed, and delivered 51 Getting Your Employer Identification Number (EIN) 51 Writing Your Organization's Bylaws 53 Holding Your First Board Meeting 53 Applying for Tax Exemption 54 Tackling Form 1023 55 Understanding the difference between public charities and private foundations 56 Establishing public charity status 56 Describing your activities 57 Reporting salaries and conflicts of interest 58 Dealing with financial information 59 Collecting the other materials 60 Paying the fee 61 Getting along until the exemption comes 61 Chapter 5: Protecting Your Nonprofit Status 63 Disclosing What You Need to Disclose 64 What you do need to show 64 What you don't need to show 65 Avoiding Excessive Payments and Politicking 66 Determining reasonable pay and benefits 66 Using caution when getting involved in politics 68 Why all the fuss? Understanding the increased scrutiny 68 Reporting to the IRS 69 Filing the 990-N 70 Taking it easy with the 990-EZ return 71 Tackling the long Form 990 76 Getting your 990 to the IRS 78 Reporting to Your State and Local Governments 78 Part 2: Managing a Nonprofit Organization 79 Chapter 6: Building Your Board of Directors 81 Understanding the Duties of a Nonprofit Board of Directors 82 Primary role: Preserving public trust 82 Secondary role: Dealing with planning, hiring, and other board tasks 84 Sharing responsibilities among the board, staff, and volunteers 86 Recruiting the Right People for Your Board 86 Keeping it fresh 87 Big boards or little boards 89 Choosing officers and committees 90 Introducing new and prospective members to the board and the organization 91 Putting Staff Members on Your Board 93 Using Your Board to Full Capacity 93 Encouraging commitment from board members 94 Holding effective board meetings 95 Chapter 7: Planning: Why and How Nonprofits Make Plans 99 Understanding the Importance of Planning 100 Making Your Organizational Plan 100 Getting ready 101 Starting from your organization's mission 102 Surveying the external situation 102 Looking at the internal situation 103 Hearing from all your stakeholders 105 Calling in the SWOT team 107 Putting the plan in writing 109 Adjusting your plan when necessary 111 Putting Plans into Action 111 Defining and setting goals, strategies, objectives, and outcomes 111 Creating a work plan 112 Planning for Programs 113 Assessing needs 114 Going beyond the needs assessment 115 Working as a team 117 Facility Planning: Finding a Place to Do Your Work 118 How much space and of what kind? 118 Location, location, location 118 Owning, leasing, or taking a free ride 119 Making a move 120 Taking on a capital project 121 Chapter 8: Evaluating Your Work: Are You Meeting Your Goals? 123 Knowing the Importance of Evaluation 124 Working through the Evaluation Process 125 Selecting the right kind of evaluation 125 Planning for evaluation 126 Crafting valuable questions 128 Choosing evaluators: Inside or outside? 130 Conducting Your Evaluation 131 Analyzing Results and Putting Them to Work 131 Interpreting results 132 Using your evaluation to strengthen your work 132 Telling the truth 134 Chapter 9: Working with Volunteers 135 Knowing Why People Volunteer 136 Designing a Volunteer Program 137 Considering a volunteer coordinator 137 Determining your need for volunteers 138 Writing volunteer job descriptions 139 Organizing volunteers 139 Hunting for Volunteers 141 Using the tried-and-true methods 141 Going online 142 Looking for volunteers at other organizations 144 Finding volunteers with special skills 144 Hiring interns 145 Interviewing and Screening Volunteers 145 Managing Your Volunteers 147 Providing adequate training 147 Keeping good records 148 Insuring your volunteers 148 Saying farewell to bad volunteers 149 Saying Thank You to Volunteers 149 Chapter 10: Working with Paid Staff 151 Deciding That You Need Help 152 Getting Your Nonprofit Ready for Paid Employees 153 Developing your personnel policies 153 Setting up a payroll system 155 Providing benefits and perquisites 155 Preparing to Hire 156 First things first: Writing a job description 156 Considering necessary qualifications 157 Establishing salary levels 158 Announcing the position 159 Making the Hire 160 Looking at resumes 160 Interviewing candidates 161 Digging deeper with references 162 Making your decision 163 Bringing a New Hire Onboard 164 Confirming employment terms in writing 164 Getting your new hire started on the job 164 Evaluating your new hire's progress 165 Managing Employees 166 Understanding what a manager does 167 Communicating with your staff 167 Letting a staff member go 169 Using Independent Contractors 170 Differentiating an independent contractor from an employee 171 Seeing what an independent contractor can do for you 172 Finding a consultant: Ask around 173 Interviewing consultants 173 Signing the contract 174 Chapter 11: Showing the Money: Budgets and Financial Reports 177 Making a Budget = Having a Plan 178 Beginning with zero 178 Defining a good budget 182 Budgeting based on your history 182 Understanding and isolating general administrative and fundraising costs 183 Accounting for in-kind contributions 183 Creating Budgets for Programs or Departments 184 Working with Your Budget 187 Projecting Cash Flow 189 Constructing your cash-flow projection 189 Deciding what to do if you don't have enough 190 Borrowing to make ends meet 192 Putting money away to make a nonprofit strong 193 Keeping Your Books Organized and Up to Date 193 Understanding the different accounting systems 194 Considering accounting software 195 Reviewing the Numbers: Financial Statements and Audits 195 Preparing financial statements 196 Seeing the value of an audit 196 Knowing whether you need an audit 197 Reading Your Financial Statements 199 Getting to know the parts of a standard financial statement 199 Asking the right financial questions 200 Managing Financial Systems 202 Chapter 12: Marketing: Spreading the Word about Your Good Work 205 Taking Care of the Basics 206 Designing a logo and letterhead 206 Preparing an organization overview or brochure 207 Creating a website 207 Producing annual reports and newsletters 209 Taking care of customers - your most important marketing tool 209 Discovering Who You Are: First Steps to Marketing 211 Recognizing your current market 212 Defining whom you want to reach and how 216 Using Mass Media to Reach Your Audience 219 Planning for effective publicity 219 Developing a media list 220 Understanding how the media works 221 Submitting materials to your media contacts 222 Getting your event into "What's Happening?" calendars 223 Putting together public service announcements 224 Using Social Media for Fun and Profit 225 Developing a social media policy 225 Planning your social media posts 226 Choosing your social media platforms 227 Protecting your online reputation 229 Part 3: Fundraising Successfully 231 Chapter 13: Building a Fundraising Plan 233 Recognizing Who Can Raise Funds 234 Naming Possible Funding Sources 235 Examining Your Potential 236 Drafting a Fundraising Plan 238 Setting a preliminary goal 239 Asking whom you know 239 Researching and refining your prospect list 240 Estimating fundraising costs 242 Getting Down to Business: Moving to an Action Plan 246 Planting the Seeds for a New Organization 247 Hitting up people you know 247 Branching out with special events 248 Approaching foundations 248 Considering government grants 248 Chapter 14: Raising Funds from Individual Donors 249 Knowing Why People Give Helps in the Asking 250 Stating Your Case 251 Identifying Possible Donors 254 Drawing circles of connections 254 Getting a list of contacts from your board of directors 256 Growing a Major Gift 257 Deciding who should do the asking 257 Preparing to make your request 257 Breaking the ice 258 Adopting the right attitude 258 Timing the request: An inexact science 258 Determining what to ask for 259 Minding your manners 260 Raising Money by Mail 260 Taking the direct-mail route 260 Trying your hand at a letter-writing campaign 262 Raising Money the "E" Way (Easily and Electronically) 263 Using email and related tools to build and maintain relationships 264 Building your email address lists 265 Using your website as a cultivation tool 266 Gathering money online 267 Soliciting text-message donations 269 Telemarketing: Dialing for Dollars 270 Writing a script 271 Coaching your callers 272 Collecting the pledges 273 Chapter 15: Making the Most of Special Events 275 Thinking through the Whole Event 276 Using your budget to guide decisions 276 Sticking to your budget 279 Soliciting in-kind gifts for your event 281 Building your event committee 282 Setting a date and location 283 Setting Up Your Timeline 284 The first three months 284 Months four and five 284 Four weeks before the event 285 The week before the event 285 Spreading the Word 287 Finding a news angle 287 Getting a mention on radio or TV 288 Chapter 16: Finding the Grant Givers 291 Planning a Foundation Grant Proposal 291 Figuring out who's looking for whom 292 Knowing whom you're dealing with: Different kinds of foundations 293 Using the Foundation Center to assemble a broad list of prospects 296 Digging deeper to narrow your prospects 300 Going for a Government Grant 301 Federal grants 302 Nonfederal government grants 304 Chapter 17: Writing a Grant Proposal 305 The Windup: Completing Pre-Proposal Tasks 306 Asking for permission to ask 306 Passing the screening questionnaire 307 The Pitch: Writing Your Proposal 307 Starting out with the cover letter and executive summary 308 Introducing your agency 309 Shaping the problem 310 Setting goals, objectives, and outcomes 310 Presenting (ta-da!) your project idea 311 Explaining how results will be measured 312 Talking about the budget 313 Showing where the rest of the money comes from: The sustainability section 315 Writing the P.S.: The appendix 316 Throwing Special Pitches for Special Situations 317 Trolling for corporate grants or sponsors 319 Seeking general operating support 320 Seed money: Proposing to form a new nonprofit 321 The Homerun: Following Through after You Receive Funding 322 Chapter 18: Capital Campaigns: Finding Lasting Resources 323 Beginning the Funding Plan 324 Preplanning your campaign 325 Developing a rough budget 326 Testing feasibility 327 Analyzing the results of your study 329 Developing a Case Statement 329 Building the Pyramid of Gifts 330 Starting at the top 331 Applying for grants as part of your capital campaign 332 Ending the quiet phase and moving into the public phase 333 Realizing the Benefits and Risks of Capital Campaigns 334 Part 4: The Part of Tens 337 Chapter 19: Ten Tips for Adapting in Hard Times 339 Recognize the Need for Change Before It's Too Late 340 Communicate When Making Hard Decisions 340 Step Back and Regroup 340 Set a Manageable Fundraising Goal 341 Collaborate with Others in Your Field 341 Share a Back Office 342 Place a Program within Another Agency 342 Merge with Another Nonprofit 343 Close with Dignity If Necessary 343 Complete the Closing Paperwork 344 Chapter 20: Ten Tips for Raising Money 347 Ask 347 Hit Up People You Know 348 Tell Your Story 348 Show How You're Improving Lives 348 Make the Numbers Sparklingly Clear 349 Research, Research, Research 349 Know Your Donors' Point of View 350 Build a Donor Pyramid 351 Make It Easy to Respond 351 Keep Good Records 352 Chapter 21: Ten Tips for Protecting Your Nonprofit 353 Assessing Your Risks 354 Planning for Emergencies 354 Filing Annual Federal Forms 355 Filing Annual State Forms 356 Paying Employment Taxes 356 Reporting Payments to Consultants 357 Maintaining Transparency 357 Responding to Negative Press 358 Protecting Your Online Reputation 358 Determining Insurance Needs 359 Part 5: Appendixes 361 Appendix A: Glossary 363 Appendix B: About the Online Content 367 Index 373

About the Author

Stan Hutton is a senior program officer at the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation. Frances N. Phillips is program director for the Arts and the Creative Work Fund at the Walter and Elise Haas Fund in San Francisco. She also taught grant writing at SFSU for more than 25 years.

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