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Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering


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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy National Nuclear Laboratory Part I: Introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle Chapter 1: Nuclear power: origins and outlook Abstract: 1.1 The rise of nuclear power: 1938 to 1970 1.2 The fall: 1970 to the mid-1990s 1.3 The resurgence: the mid-1990s to the present day 1.4 Future trends Chapter 2: Radiological protection and the nuclear fuel cycle Abstract: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The international system of radiological protection 2.3 International safety standards 2.4 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements and guidance for radiation protection 2.5 Radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle 2.6 Conclusions and future trends 2.8 Appendix: Requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards relevant to radiological safety in the nuclear fuel cycle Chapter 3: Safeguards, security, safety and the nuclear fuel cycle Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Nuclear safeguards 3.3 Nuclear security 3.4 Nuclear safety 3.5 Conclusion and future trends 3.6 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 4: Public acceptability of nuclear technology Abstract: 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Historical background 4.3 Investigating determinants of acceptability of nuclear technology 4.4 Beyond an instrumental approach to public acceptability 4.5 Future trends Chapter 5: The economics of nuclear power Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) 5.3 Financing of NPPs 5.4 Conclusions 5.5 Future trends Part II: Uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycles: materials mining, enrichment and fuel element design and fabrication Chapter 6: Mining and milling of uranium Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Uranium mining and milling 6.3 World uranium mines 6.4 Environmental and social impacts 6.5 Secondary sources of uranium 6.6 Conclusion and future trends Chapter 7: Uranium conversion and enrichment Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Uranium hexafluoride 7.3 Conversion 7.4 Enrichment 7.5 Uranium hexafluoride quality, sampling and analysis 7.6 Tails management 7.7 Transport cylinder management 7.8 Nuclear safeguards 7.9 Future trends Chapter 8: Development of the thorium fuel cycle Abstract: 8.1 Reasons for considering the thorium cycle 8.2 History and development of the thorium fuel cycle 8.3 Key technological features of the thorium fuel cycle and industrial challenges 8.4 Generic issues linked to the deployment of the thorium fuel cycle 8.5 Conclusion Chapter 9: Nuclear fuel assembly design and fabrication Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Principal design features of LWR fuel assemblies 9.3 Basic reactor physics affecting fuel assembly design 9.4 Fuel rod design and fabrication 9.5 Fuel forms 9.6 Factors affecting fuel rod endurance 9.7 Future trends 9.8 Sources of further information Part III: Impact of nuclear reactor design and operation on fuel element irradiation Chapter 10: Water cooled thermal reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Main characteristic of LWRs 10.3 Pressurised water reactor (PWR) design features 10.4 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on PWR reactor design 10.5 PWR core design 10.6 Boiling water reactor (BWR) design features 10.7 Factors affecting reactivity and their impact on BWR reactor design 10.8 BWR core and fuel assembly design 10.9 Safety features and issues 10.10 Advantages and limitations 10.11 Future trends 10.12 Sources of further information Chapter 11: CANDU nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 CANDU reactor features 11.3 CANDU fuel and refuelling 11.4 CANDU reactor control and safety 11.5 Future trends Chapter 12: Gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Magnox reactors 12.3 The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) 12.3.5 Fuel storage 12.3.6 Waste management and decommissioning 12.4 Safety features and issues 12.5 The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) 12.5.2 Main plant features 12.5.3 Fuel design and refuelling 12.6 Acknowledgements Chapter 13: Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 General issues in developing sustainable fuel cycles 13.3 The Generation IV Initiative 13.4 Common Generation IV requirements for fuels and fuel cycles 13.5 The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and its fuel cycle 13.6 The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and its fuel cycle 13.7 The molten salt reactor (MSR) and its fuel cycle 13.8 The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and its fuel cycle 13.9 The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and its fuel cycle 13.10 The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) and its fuel cycle 13.11 Future trends 13.12 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 14: Understanding and modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Description of important phenomena 14.3 Modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation 14.4 Sources of further information Part IV: Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management Chapter 15: Nuclear management of spent fuel from power reactors Abstract: 15.1 Types of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel arisings 15.2 International initiatives in spent fuel management 15.3 Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel 15.4 Spent fuel management strategies 15.5 Spent fuel storage 15.6 Spent fuel disposal 15.7 Spent fuel reprocessing and recycling 15.8 High-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage and disposal Chapter 16: Reprocessing of spent oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors Abstract: 16.1 Introduction: closed and open cycles 16.2 Targets and constraints of reprocessing 16.3 Main industrial reprocessing process (PUREX) 16.4 Reprocessing plant 16.5 Reprocessing: industrial organization 16.6 Closed cycles 16.7 Future trends 16.8 Sources of further information and advice 16.9 Appendix: Industrial-scale reprocessing of spent oxide fuel in selected countries Chapter 17: Partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste Abstract: 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Physics of transmutation 17.3 Transmutation in different types of reactors 17.4 Implementation scenarios 17.5 Potential benefits of P&T for a repository 17.6 Future trends and R&D challenges 17.7 Conclusions 17.8 Acknowledgement Chapter 18: Disposal of radioactive waste Abstract: 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Nature of radioactive waste 18.3 Pre-disposal 18.4 Framework for disposal 18.5 Modern disposal practice 18.6 Future trends 18.7 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 19: Packaging and transport of radioactive material in the nuclear fuel cycle Abstract: 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Safety and security in the packaging and transport of radioactive material 19.3 Governing international regulatory security principles and guidance in radioactive materials' packaging and transport 19.4 Regulatory requirements for packages and transport 19.5 Transport experience and operations 19.6 Current technologies and future trends 19.8 Acknowledgements Co-operation in the field of nuclear power: An overview of non-commercial international nuclear power organisations Index

About the Author

Dr Ian Crossland is the Director of Crossland Consulting Ltd. Dr Crossland has over 40 years experience in the UK nuclear power industry. He is an independent consultant for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as several national radioactive waste management bodies in Europe.

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