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Nx-OS and Cisco Nexus Switching

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Foreword xxiii Introduction xxiv Chapter 1 Introduction to Cisco NX-OS 1 NX-OS Overview 1 NX-OS Supported Platforms 3 NX-OS Licensing 7 Nexus 7000 7 Nexus 5500 8 Nexus 3000 8 Nexus 2000 9 Nexus 1000v 9 Installing the NX-OS License File 9 Cisco NX-OS and Cisco IOS Comparison 10 NX-OS User Modes 12 EXEC Command Mode 12 Global Configuration Command Mode 13 Interface Configuration Command Mode 13 Management Interfaces 14 Controller Processor (Supervisor Module) 15 Connectivity Management Processor (CMP) 16 Telnet 18 SSH 19 SNMP 23 DCNM 26 Managing System Files 28 File Systems 28 Configuration Files: Configuration Rollback 33 Operating System Files 35 Virtual Device Contexts 37 VDC Configuration 43 VDC Interface Allocation 46 Interface Allocation: N7K-M132XP-12 and L 46 Interface Allocation: N7K-F132XP-15 47 Interface Allocation: N7K-M108X2-12L 48 Interface Allocation: 10/100/1000 Modules 48 Interface Allocation on M2 Modules 52 Troubleshooting 54 show Commands 54 debug Commands 55 Topology 56 Further Reading 57 Chapter 2 Layer 2 Support and Configurations 59 Layer 2 Overview 59 Store-and-Forward Switching 60 Cut-Through Switching 60 Fabric Extension via the Nexus 2000 60 Configuring Nexus 2000 Using Static Pinning 61 Nexus 2000 Static Pinning Verification 62 Configuring Nexus 2000 Using Port-Channels 66 Nexus 2000 Static Pinning Verification 67 Layer 2 Forwarding on a Nexus 7000 69 L2 Forwarding Verification 70 VLANs 71 Configuring VLANs 72 VLAN Trunking Protocol 72 Assigning VLAN Membership 73 Verifying VLAN Configuration 74 Private VLANs 76 Configuring PVLANs 77 Verifying PVLAN Configuration 80 Spanning Tree Protocol 80 Rapid-PVST+ Configuration 82 Verifying Spanning Tree State for a VLAN 83 Spanning Tree Timers 84 MST Configuration 87 Additional Spanning Tree Configuration 91 Port Cost 91 Port Priority 94 Spanning Tree Toolkit 94 BPDUGuard 94 BPDUFilter 95 RootGuard 96 LoopGuard 97 Dispute Mechanism 98 Bridge Assurance 98 Spanning Tree Port Types 99 Virtualization Hosts 100 Configuring Layer 2 Interfaces 100 Trunk Ports 100 Standard Host 101 Link to Virtualization Host 101 Port-Profiles 102 Port-Channels 103 Assigning Physical Ports to a Port-Channel 104 Port-Channel Flow Control 107 Verifying Load Distribution Across a Port-Channel 108 Virtual Port-Channels 109 vPC Peer-Gateway 116 vPC Peer-Switch 116 ARP Synchronization 117 Unidirectional Link Detection 118 Cisco FabricPath 119 vPC+ 127 Configuring vPC+ 127 Summary 133 Chapter 3 Layer 3 Support and Configurations 135 EIGRP 135 EIGRP Operation 136 Configuring EIGRP 137 EIGRP Summarization 142 EIGRP Stub Routing 145 Securing EIGRP 147 EIGRP Redistribution 149 OSPF 154 OSPFv2 Configuration 154 OSPF Summarization 160 OSPF Stub Routing 163 Securing OSPF 167 OSPF Redistribution 169 OSPFv3 Configuration 177 IS-IS 178 IS-IS Configuration 178 BGP 183 BGP Configuration 184 BGP Neighbors 187 Securing BGP 190 BGP Peer Templates 192 Advertising BGP Networks 194 Modifying BGP Routing Metrics 197 Verifying BGP-Specific Configuration 198 First Hop Redundancy Protocols 198 HSRP 199 HSRP Configuration 199 HSRP Priority and Preempt 200 Verifying the HSRP Configuration 201 Securing HSRP 202 HSRP Secondary Support 204 HSRP Support for IPv6 204 VRRP 205 VRRP Configuration 205 VRRP Priority and Preempt 207 Verifying VRRP Configuration 208 Securing VRRP 208 VRRP Secondary Support 209 HSRP, VRRP, and vPC Interactions 210 GLBP 212 GLBP Configuration 212 GLBP Priority and Preempt 214 Verifying GLBP Configuration 214 Securing GLBP 215 GLBP Secondary Support 218 Summary 220 Chapter 4 IP Multicast Configuration 221 Multicast Operation 221 Multicast Distribution Trees 222 Reverse Path Forwarding 225 Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) 225 RPs 226 PIM Configuration on Nexus 7000 and Nexus 5500 227 Configuring Static RPs 230 Configuring BSRs 232 Configuring Auto-RP 235 Configuring Anycast-RP 237 Configuring SSM and Static RPF 239 IGMP Operation 241 IGMP Configuration on Nexus 7000 242 IGMP Configuration on Nexus 5000 245 IGMP Configuration on Nexus 1000V 246 MSDP Configuration on Nexus 7000 248 Administrative Scoping of Multicast RPs in PIM 250 Configuring PIM Join and Prune Policies 252 Multicast and Control Plane Policing (CoPP) 253 Summary 253 Chapter 5 Security 255 Configuring RADIUS 256 RADIUS Configuration Distribution 259 Configuring TACACS+ 266 Enabling TACACS+ 266 TACACS+ Configuration Distribution 267 Configuring the Global TACACS+ Keys 268 Configuring the TACACS+ Server Hosts 268 Configuring TACACS+ Server Groups 269 Configuring TACACS+ Source Interface 270 Configuring SSH 275 Cisco TrustSec 278 Configuring AAA for Cisco TrustSec 281 Defining Network Device Admission Control 282 Configuring the Nexus 7000 for 802.1x and SGA Features 285 SGT Assignment via ISE Server 288 Policy Component: IP to SGT Mapping 290 Policy Component: SGACL Creation 292 Configuring Cisco TrustSec: IEEE 802.1AE LinkSec 294 Layer 2 Solutions Between Data Centers 301 Configuring IP ACLs 302 Configuring MAC ACLs 305 Configuring VLAN ACLs 307 Configuring Port Security 308 Security Violations and Actions 311 Configuring DHCP Snooping 313 Configuring Dynamic ARP Inspection 316 Dynamic ARP Inspection Trust State 317 Configuring IP Source Guard 321 Configuring Keychain Management 322 Configuring Traffic Storm Control 323 Configuring Unicast RPF 325 Configuring Control Plane Policing 327 Configuring Rate Limits 335 SNMPv3 340 Summary 347 Chapter 6 High Availability 349 Physical Redundancy 349 Redundant Power Supplies 350 Redundant Cooling System 352 Redundant Supervisors 355 Redundant Ethernet Out-of-Band (EOBC) 357 Redundant Fabric Modules 357 Generic Online Diagnostics 358 Bootup Diagnostics 359 Runtime Diagnostics 360 On-Demand Diagnostics 365 NX-OS High-Availability Architecture 365 Process Modularity 366 Process Restart 368 Stateful Switchover 369 Nonstop Forwarding 370 In-Service Software Upgrades 370 Summary 383 Chapter 7 Embedded Serviceability Features 385 SPAN 386 SPAN on Nexus 7000 386 Configuring SPAN on Nexus 7000 387 SPAN on Nexus 5x00 392 Configuring SPAN on Nexus 5x00 393 SPAN on Nexus 1000V 397 Configuring SPAN on Nexus 1000V 398 ERSPAN on Nexus 1000V 400 ERSPAN on Nexus 7000 406 ERSPAN on Nexus 5x00 412 Embedded Analyzer 414 Smart Call Home 424 Smart Call Home Configuration 428 Configuration Checkpoint and Rollback on Nexus 7000 431 Checkpoint Creation and Rollback 432 Configuration Checkpoint and Rollback on Nexus 5x00 434 Checkpoint Creation and Rollback 435 NetFlow 437 Configuring NetFlow on Nexus 7000 438 Configuring NetFlow on Nexus 1000V 442 Network Time Protocol 444 Precision Time Protocol 445 IEEE 802.3az (Energy Efficient Ethernet) 447 Power On Auto-Provisioning 448 Python 449 Summary 454 Chapter 8 Unified Fabric 455 Unified Fabric Overview 455 Enabling Technologies 456 10-Gigabit Ethernet 456 Fibre Channel over Ethernet 458 Single-Hop Fibre Channel over Ethernet 461 Multhop Fibre Channel over Ethernet 462 Storage VDC on Nexus 7000 463 N-Port Virtualization 465 N-Port Identification Virtualization 466 FCoE NPV Mode 466 Nexus 5x00 Unified Fabric Configuration 467 Single-Hop FCoE Configuration: Nexus 5x00 469 FCoE-NPV on Nexus 5x00 473 Nexus 7000 Unified Fabric Configuration 477 Summary 488 Chapter 9 Nexus 1000V 489 Hypervisor and vSphere Introduction 489 Nexus 1000V System Overview 490 Nexus 1000V Switching Overview 494 Nexus 1000V VSM Installation 496 Nexus 1000V Deployed on Nexus 1010 Virtual Services Blade 497 Registering the Nexus 1000V Plug-In to VMware Virtual Center Management Application 502 Configuring the SVS Domain and Networking Characteristics 507 Connecting the Nexus 1000V VSM to the vCenter Server 508 Nexus 1000V Installation Management Center 510 VEM Installation Option on the Nexus 1000V Management Installation Center 519 vCenter Connection Option on the Nexus 1000V Management Installation Center 523 Creating the Uplink Profile 526 Adding the VEM to a ESX vSphere Host 528 Enabling the Telnet Server Process 536 Changing the VSM Hostname 536 Layer 3 Control 536 1000V Port Profiles 542 Virtual Network Management Center 552 Installing Virtual Network Management Center Software from OVA Downloaded from 553 Adding the VM-Manager for vCenter Connectivity in VNMC Management Application 564 Configuring the Cisco VNMC Policy-Agent on the 1000v VSM 570 Virtual Security Gateway 571 Install Virtual Security Gateway on the Nexus 1010 574 Configuring the Cisco VNMC Policy-Agent on the VSG 577 Verify That the VSG and VSM Are Registered Clients in VNMC 578 Creating a Tenant in VMMC 579 Virtual Extensible LAN 602 Deploying Virtual Extensible LAN 604 Nexus 1000v Network Analysis Module 629 Installing Nexus 1000v Network Analysis Module 630 Deploying the Nexus 1000v NAM as a Virtual Services Blade on the Nexus 1010 641 Summary 642 Chapter 10 Quality of Service (QoS) 643 QoS on Nexus 7000 646 Forwarding Architecture 646 Network-QoS Policies 648 Queuing Policies 650 QoS and Nexus 2000 Fabric Extenders 661 QoS and Nexus 7000 Virtual Device Contexts 663 QoS on Nexus 5x00 663 Forwarding Architecture 663 Network-QoS Policies 664 Queuing Policies 667 QoS and Nexus 2000 Fabric Extenders 668 QoS on Nexus 1000V 670 Forwarding Architecture 670 Classification in Nexus 1000V 670 Summary 674 Chapter 11 Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV) 675 OTV Terminology and Concepts 677 OTV Control Plane 682 Multicast-Enabled Transport Infrastructure 687 Unicast-Enabled Transport Infrastructure 691 OTV Data-Plane 695 Data-Plane Multicast Traffic 697 OTV and QoS 698 Failure Isolation 698 STP Isolation 698 Unknown Unicast Handling with OTV 699 Broadcast Traffic Handling with OTV 699 Multihoming with OTV 700 OTV and ARP 700 First-Hop Routing Protocol Localization 702 Inbound Path Optimization 705 Summary 707 Chapter 12 Layer 3 Virtualization and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 709 Virtual Routing and Forwarding 709 Predefined VRFs 710 VRF Operational Commands 713 VRF-Lite 713 MPLS Introduction 717 MPLS Terminology 718 LDP and Layer 3 VPNs 720 Quality of Service 723 Traffic Engineering 723 MPLS and IPv6: 6PE and 6VPE 725 Management and Troubleshooting 725 High Availability 725 Nexus Hardware Requirements and NX-OS Licensing for MPLS and VRF 726 Summary 727 Chapter 13 LISP 729 LISP Overview 729 LISP Terminology 730 LISP Prerequisites 731 LISP Control Plane 732 LISP Data Plane 733 Communicating Between LISP and non-LISP Sites 735 LISP Host Mobility with an Extended Subnet Mode 736 LISP Deployment Best Practices 746 Summary 746 Chapter 14 Nexus Migration Case Study 749 Existing Environment 749 Design Goals 750 The Design 751 Migration Plan 752 Premigration Steps 752 Maintenance Window #1 754 Maintenance Window #1 Summary 760 Maintenance Window #2 760 Ongoing Maintenance Windows 788 Summary 788 Index 789

About the Author

Ron Fuller, CCIE No. 5851 (Routing and Switching/Storage Networking), is a technical marketing engineer (TME) on the Nexus 7000 team for Cisco. He has 21 years of experience in the industry and has held certifications from Novell, HP, Microsoft, ISC2, SNIA, and Cisco. His focus is working with customers worldwide to address their challenges with comprehensive end-to-end data center architectures and how they can best use Cisco technology to their advantage. He has had the opportunity to speak at Cisco Live on VDCs, NX-OS Multicast, and general design. He lives in Ohio with his wife and four wonderful children and enjoys travel and auto racing. He can be found on Twitter @ccie5851. David Jansen, CCIE No. 5952, is a technical solutions architect for Data Center for Enterprise Central Area. David has more than 20 years' experience in the information technology industry. He has held multiple certifications from Microsoft, Novell, Checkpoint, and Cisco. His focus is to work with Enterprise customers to address end-to-end data center Enterprise architectures. David has been with Cisco for 15 years and working as a technical solutions architect for 6 years and has provided unique experiences helping customers build architectures for Enterprise data centers. David holds a B.S.E. degree in computer science from the University of Michigan (Go Blue!) and an M.A. degree in adult education from Central Michigan University. Matthew McPherson is a senior systems engineer and solutions architect for Cisco in the Central Select Operation, specializing in data center architectures. Matt has been with Cisco for more than 2 1/2 years and has more than 12 years of experience in the industry working for service providers and large enterprise customers in the financial and manufacturing verticals. He has held certifications from Juniper, Netscreen, and Cisco, and possesses a deep technical background in the areas of routing, switching, and security. His primary focus is working with strategic customers in greater Michigan to address their overall infrastructure challenges. He lives in Michigan with his wife and enjoys biking and collecting cars.

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