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Ocean Biogeochemistry
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements.- References.- 1 Biogeochemical Provinces: Towards a JGOFS Synthesis.- 1.1 Plankton Community Structure and Distribution.- 1.2 Partitioning the Oceans.- 1.3 Primary Production in Ocean Domains and Provinces.- 1.3.1 Adding up Global PP Observations.- 1.4 Bacterial Production and DOC Flux.- 1.5 A Provincial Outlook.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 2 Physical Transport of Nutrients and the Maintenance of Biological Production.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Global Overturning Circulation and Nutrient Transport.- 2.2.1 Overturning Circulation and Water-Mass Distributions.- 2.2.2 Southern Ocean.- 2.2.3 Nutrient Supply to the Northern Basins.- 2.2.4 Summary.- 2.3 Convection.- 2.3.1 Vertical Transfer of Nutrients.- 2.3.2 Biophysical Interactions and Convection.- 2.3.3 Limited Role of Convection.- 2.3.4 Summary.- 2.4 Wind-Driven Circulations: Gyres and Boundary Currents.- 2.4.1 Wind-Induced Upwelling and Gyre Circulations.- 2.4.2 Gyre-Scale Circulations.- 2.4.3 Subduction and Fluid Transfer into the Seasonal Boundary Layer.- 2.4.4 Oligotrophic Subtropical Gyres.- 2.4.5 Western Boundary Transport of Nutrients.- 2.4.6 Summary.- 2.5 Smaller-Scale Circulations: Mesoscale Eddies, Waves and Sub-Mesoscale Fronts.- 2.5.1 Formation of Mesoscale Eddies and Sub-Mesoscale Fronts.- 2.5.2 Local Response to Planetary Waves, Eddies and Fronts.- 2.5.3 Far Field Effects: Eddy Transport and Diffusion.- 2.5.4 Summary.- 2.6 Interannual and Long-Term Variability.- 2.6.1 Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Changes: ENSO.- 2.6.2 North Atlantic Oscillation.- 2.6.3 Changes in Overturning Circulation.- 2.6.4 Summary.- 2.7 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- Notes.- References.- 3 Continental Margin Exchanges.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Recycling Systems.- 3.3 Export Systems.- 3.4 Coastal Upwelling Systems.- 3.5 California Current System.- 3.6 Humboldt Current System.- 3.7 Benguela Current System.- 3.8 Monsoonal Upwelling Systems.- 3.9 Biogeochemical Budgeting.- 3.10 The Arctic Shelves.- 3.10.1 Introduction.- 3.10.2 The Arctic Ocean As a Mediterranean, Shelf-Dominated Sea.- 3.10.3 The Shelves of the Arctic Ocean.- 3.10.4 Barents Shelf.- 3.10.5 Kara Shelf.- 3.10.6 Laptev Shelf.- 3.10.7 East Siberian and Chukchi Shelves.- 3.10.8 Beaufort Shelf.- 3.10.9 The Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea as a Case Study.- 3.10.10 Shelf to Basin Sediment Transport in the Arctic.- 3.10.11 CH4, DMS (Dimethyl-Sulphide) Production in the Arctic.- 3.10.12 A Budget for the Arctic Shelves.- 3.10.13 Global Change; Speculation on Consequences for Arctic Shelves.- 3.11 Marginal Seas.- 3.11.1 High Latitude Marginal Seas.- 3.11.2 Semi-Enclosed Marginal Seas.- 3.11.3 Initial Synthesis.- 3.11.4 Future Research.- 3.11.5 Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Apendix 3.1 - Continental Margins: Site Descriptions.- 4 Phytoplankton and Their Role in Primary, New, and Export Production.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 A Brief Introduction to Phytoplankton.- 4.1.2 Photosynthesis and Primary Production.- 4.1.3 Measuring Photosynthesis and Net Primary Production in the Sea.- 4.1.4 A Brief History of the Measurement of Primary Productivity in the Oceans.- 4.1.5 Quantifying Global Net Primary Productivity in the Oceans.- 4.1.6 Export, New and 'True New' Production.- 4.1.7 Elemental Ratios and Constraints on New Production.- 4.1.8 New Production, Export Production, and Net Community Production.- 4.1.9 Measurement of New Production.- 4.1.10 Measurement of Net Community Production.- 4.1.11 Measurement of Export Production.- 4.1.12 Summary of Methods.- 4.2 Synthesis.- 4.2.1 Physical Controls of Export Fluxes: the Importance of Functional Groups.- 4.2.2 Calcium Carbonate Precipitation.- 4.2.3 Primary, New and Export Production and the Global Carbon Cycle on Longer Time Scales.- References.- 5 Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 The Oceans' Influence on Atmospheric CO2.- 5.2.1 The Ocean Sets the Steady-State Atmospheric CO2 Concentration.- 5.2.2 The Pre-Industrial Steady State.- 5.2.3 Pre-Industrial North-South Transports.- 5.3 How Big is the Global Ocean Sink?.- 5.3.1 1-D Models Calibrated with 14C.- 5.3.2 3-D Models of the Ocean Carbon Cycle.- 5.3.3 13C Changes with Time in the Ocean.- 5.3.4 Atmospheric Observations.- 5.3.5 Observations of the Air-Sea Flux.- 5.3.6 Preformed Total Carbon Methods and the Ocean Inventory of CO2.- 5.3.7 Summary of Recent Estimates of the Ocean Sink.- 5.4 What Processes Control Air-Sea CO2 Flux?.- 5.4.1 Patterns in the Global Survey.- 5.4.2 Comparison Using Models.- 5.4.3 Modelled Future Uptake of Anthropogenic CO2.- 5.5 Variability in the CO2 Signal.- 5.5.1 Seasonal Variation.- 5.5.2 Inter-Annual Variation.- 5.6 The Gas Transfer Velocity.- 5.7 Conclusion: the Next Ten Years.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 6 Water Column Biogeochemistry below the Euphotic Zone.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Twilight Zone: Biology, Biogeochemical Processes and Fluxes.- 6.2.1 Biology of the Twilight Zone.- 6.2.2 Nature of the Exported Material and Processes.- 6.2.3 Microbial Production of Nitrous Oxide.- 6.3 The Fluxes of Biogenic Matter versus Depth.- 6.3.1 The Export Flux out of the Euphotic Zone.- 6.3.2 The Export Flux towards the Ocean's Interior (>1000 m).- 6.4 The Variable Composition of the World Ocean Waters along the Conveyor Belt.- 6.5 Conclusions and Perspectives.- 6.5.1 The Ventilation Depth and the ?-Ratio.- 6.5.2 The Role of Mineral Ballasts in the Export of Carbon to the Ocean Interior.- References.- 7 The Impact of Climate Change and Feedback Processes on the Ocean Carbon Cycle.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Climate and Change - Present Status.- 7.1.2 Examples of Feedbacks in the Present and the Geological Past.- 7.2 Feedbacks.- 7.2.1 Definition.- 7.2.2 Identification.- 7.2.3 Classification.- 7.2.4 Magnitude.- 7.2.5 Evolution.- 7.2.6 Interactions between Feedbacks.- 7.2.7 Scales and Response Times.- 7.2.8 Degree of Confidence - Understanding Feedbacks.- 7.3 What do Current Models Predict?.- 7.4 Status of Our Understanding of Feedbacks.- 7.5 Nutrient Dynamics.- 7.6 Phytoplankton and Carbon Limitation.- 7.6.1 Atmospheric Supply of Nutrients.- 7.6.2 Nitrogen Fixation.- 7.6.3 Changes in Nutrient Uptake Stoichiometry - the Redfield Ratio.- 7.6.4 Export Production and Remineralisation in the Deep Ocean.- 7.7 The Calcifiers.- 7.7.1 Biogeochemistry and Feedbacks.- 7.7.2 Global Distributions.- 7.7.3 Controlling Factors, Forcing and Modelling.- 7.7.4 A Case Study - the Bering Sea.- 7.8 Iron Supply to the Oceans.- 7.8.1 How Much of the Ocean Is Iron-Poor?.- 7.8.2 The Supply of Iron to the Ocean.- 7.8.3 Atmospheric Deposition of Iron versus Upwelling Supply.- 7.8.4 Dust Supply - Global Maps and Fluxes.- 7.8.5 Dust Transport - from Soil to Phytoplankton.- 7.8.6 Response by the Biota - Detection.- 7.8.7 The Future - Climate Change and Dust Deposition.- 7.8.8 A Case Study - Uncertainties in Projection.- 7.9 Dimethyl Sulphide and the Biota.- 7.9.1 The CLAW Hypothesis.- 7.9.2 What Produces DMSP/DMS?.- 7.9.3 Global Distributions of DMS.- 7.9.4 The Haptophyte Connection.- 7.10 UV-B and Ozone Depletion.- 7.10.1 Present Status of Ozone Depletion.- 7.10.2 Phytoplankton and Primary Production.- 7.10.3 Dissolved Organic Matter and Heterotrophic Bacteria.- 7.10.4 Pelagic Community Response.- 7.10.5 The Future.- 7.11 Summary of Biotic Feedbacks.- 7.12 Climate - Variability versus Change.- 7.12.1 Climate Change.- 7.12.2 Climate Variability.- 7.12.3 Regime Shifts.- 7.12.4 Unexpected Biological Responses to Climate Change.- 7.13 Modeling - Future Goals.- 7.14 The Future.- 7.14.1 Detection and Projection.- 7.14.2 Does the 'Initial' Condition Still Exist?.- 7.14.3 The Need for a Regional Approach.- 7.14.4 A New Definition of Biogeochemical Provinces?.- 7.15 Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 8 Benthic Processes and the Burial of Carbon.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Processes of Transport and Turnover of Material in the Deep Ocean.- 8.2.1 Transfer of Organic Material from the Surface to the Deep Ocean.- 8.2.2 Benthic Carbon Turnover Processes.- 8.3 Quantitative Estimates of Carbon Deposition and Carbon Turnover.- 8.3.1 Strategies for Quantification of Benthic Fluxes.- 8.3.2 Regional Assessments of Deep-Ocean Fluxes.- 8.3.3 Global Estimates of Deep Ocean Carbon Deposition and Remineralization.- 8.4 Proxy Indicators of Paleoproductivity.- 8.4.1 Estimates Based on Organic Carbon Burial Rates.- 8.4.2 Estimates Based on Biomarker Accumulation Rates.- 8.4.3 Estimates Based on Barium Accumulation Rates.- 8.4.4 Estimates Based on Radionuclide Ratios.- 8.4.5 Estimates Based on Redox-Sensitive Trace Elements.- 8.4.6 Estimates Based on Benthic and Planktonic Foraminifera.- 8.4.7 Estimates Based on Coccolithophorids and Diatoms.- 8.4.8 Proxies of Surface Nutrient Concentration.- 8.4.9 Proxies of Surface Nutrient UtiUzation Efficiency.- 8.5 Conclusions.- References.- 9 Global Ocean Carbon Cycle Modeling.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Anthropogenic Carbon Uptake, Transient Tracers, and Physics.- 9.3 Global Biogeochemical Cycles.- 9.4 Ecosystem Dynamics.- 9.5 Other Topics.- 9.5.1 Mesoscale Physics.- 9.5.2 Climate Variability and Secular Change.- 9.5.3 Land, Coastal Ocean, and Sediment Interactions.- 9.5.4 Inverse Modeling and Data Assimilation.- 9.6 Summary.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 10 Temporal Studies of Biogeochemical Processes Determined from Ocean Time-Series Observations During the JGOFS Era.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 The Oceanic Carbon Cycle and the Biological Carbon Pump.- 10.3 Global Inventory of JGOFS Time-Series Programs.- 10.3.1 Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS).- 10.3.2 Dynamique des Flux Atmospherique en Mediterranee (DYFAMED).- 10.3.3 European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean Canary Islands (ESTOC).- 10.3.4 Hawaii Ocean Time-Series (HOT).- 10.3.5 Kerguelen Point Fixe (KERFIX).- 10.3.6 Kyodo Northwest Pacific Ocean Time-Series (KNOT).- 10.3.7 Ocean Station Papa (OSP or Sta. P).- 10.3.8 South East Asia Time-Series Station (SEATS).- 10.4 Some Practical Lessons Learned from the JGOFS Time-Series Programs.- 10.5 Cross Ecosystem Habitat Comparisons: Nutrient, Chlorophyll and Production-Export Relationships.- 10.5.1 Case Study 1: Estimates of the Biological Carbon Pump at Ocean Times Series Sites.- 10.5.2 Case Study 2: A 'Bermuda Triangle' Carbon Mystery with Global Implications.- 10.5.3 Case Study 3: Decade-Scale, Climate-Driven Changes in the N2-Primed Prokaryote Carbon Pump.- 10.5.4 Case Study 4: OSP Ecosytem Dynamics and the Role of Iron.- 10.6 Beyond JGOFS: a Prospectus.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 11 JGOFS: a Retrospective View.- 11.1 The JGOFS Science Plan.- 11.2 The Process Studies.- 11.3 Iron Fertilisation Experiments.- 11.4 The Time Series Stations.- 11.5 The Global Survey.- 11.6 Remote Sensing.- 11.7 Benthic Studies.- 11.8 Continental Margins.- 11.9 Data Archiving.- 11.10 Models and Synthesis.- 11.11 Overall Conclusions.- References.

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From the reviews: "The volume consistently conveys both the importance of the ocean in the global carbon cycle and the uncertainty of the oceanic response to global change. ! The stated objective of The IGBP Series, to present key results of the JGOFS project, is accomplished. ! The design of the book is very attractive, the type clear, and the figure size appropriate. ! this volume provides a valuable state of the art of ocean biogeochemistry for those interested in the carbon cycle or climate change." (Mary-Elena Carr, Ecology, Vol. 85 (7), 2004)

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