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Acknowledgments ix Preface xiii Foreword xv About the Authors xxiii Part One: Defining the Structure of Culture 1. How to Define Culture in General 3 The Problem of Defining Culture Clearly 3 Summary and Conclusions 14 Suggestions for Readers 16 2. The Structure of Culture 17 Three Levels of Analysis 17 Summary and Conclusions 29 Suggestions for Readers 30 3. A Young and Growing U.S. Engineering Organization 31 Case 1: Digital Equipment Corporation in Maynard, Massachusetts 31 Summary and Conclusions 42 Suggestions for Readers 43 4. A Mature Swiss-German Chemical Organization 45 Case 2: Ciba-Geigy Company in Basel, Switzerland 45 Can Organizational Cultures Be Stronger than National Cultures? 55 Summary and Conclusions 56 Questions for Readers 59 5. A Developmental Government Organization in Singapore 61 Case 3: Singapore's Economic Development Board 61 The EDB Nested Cultural Paradigms 63 Summary and Conclusions: The Multiple Implications of the Three Cases 73 Questions for Readers 75 Part Two: What Leaders Need to Know about Macro Cultures 6. Dimensions of the Macro-Cultural Context 81 Travel and Literature 81 Survey Research 82 Ethnographic, Observational, and Interview-Based Research 86 Human Essence and Basic Motivation 96 Summary and Conclusions 102 Questions for Readers 104 7. A Focused Way of Working with Macro Cultures 105 Cultural Intelligence 107 How to Foster Cross-Cultural Learning 109 The Paradox of Macro Culture Understanding 117 Echelons as Macro Cultures 118 Summary and Conclusions 121 Suggestion for the Change Leader: Do Some Experiments with Dialogue 122 Suggestion for the Recruit 123 Suggestion for the Scholar or Researcher 123 Suggestion for the Consultant or Helper 123 Part Three: Culture and Leadership through Stages of Growth 8. How Culture Begins and the Role of the Founder of Organizations 127 A Model of How Culture Forms in New Groups 127 The Role of the Founder in the Creation of Cultures 130 Example 1: Ken Olsen and DEC Revisited 132 Example 2: Sam Steinberg and Steinberg's of Canada 136 Example 3: Fred Smithfield, a "Serial Entrepreneur" 140 Example 4: Steve Jobs and Apple 142 Example 5: IBM Thomas Watson Sr. and His Son 144 Example 6: Hewlett and Packard 144 Summary and Conclusions 146 Suggestions for Readers 147 Implications for Founders and Leaders 147 9. How External Adaptation and Internal Integration Become Culture 149 The Socio-Technical Issues of Organizational Growth and Evolution 150 Issues around the Means: Structure, Systems, and Processes 158 Summary and Conclusions 178 Suggestion for the Culture Analyst 179 Suggestion for the Manager and Leader 179 10. How Leaders Embed and Transmit Culture 181 Primary Embedding Mechanisms 183 Secondary Reinforcement and Stabilizing Mechanisms 196 Summary and Conclusions 204 Questions for Researchers, Students, and Employees 206 11. The Culture Dynamics of Organizational Growth, Maturity, and Decline 207 General Effects of Success, Growth, and Age 208 Differentiation and the Growth of Subcultures 211 The Need for Alignment between Three Generic Subcultures: Operators, Designers, and Executives 221 The Unique Role of the Executive Function: Subculture Management 229 Summary and Conclusions 229 Suggestions for the Reader 231 12. Natural and Guided Cultural Evolution 233 Founding and Early Growth 234 Transition to Midlife: Problems of Succession 237 Organizational Maturity and Potential Decline 245 Summary and Conclusions 250 Questions for Readers 251 Part Four: Assessing Culture and Leading Planned Change 13. Deciphering Culture 255 Why Decipher Culture? 255 How Valid Are Clinically Gathered Data? 262 Ethical Issues in Deciphering Culture 263 Professional Obligations of the Culture Analyst 266 Summary and Conclusions 267 Questions for the Reader 269 14. The Diagnostic Quantitative Approach to Assessment and Planned Change 271 Why Use Typologies, and Why Not? 272 Typologies that Focus on Assumptions about Authority and Intimacy 278 Typologies of Corporate Character and Culture 281 Examples of Survey-Based Profiles of Cultures 285 Automated Culture Analysis with Software-as-a-Service 288 Summary and Conclusions 293 Suggestions for the Reader 295 15. The Dialogic Qualitative Culture Assessment Process 297 Case 4: MA-COM Revising a Change Agenda as a Result of Cultural Insight 298 Case 5: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Reassessing Their Mission 302 Case 6: Apple Assessing Its Culture as Part of a Long-Range Planning Process 307 Case 7: SAAB COMBITECH Building Collaboration in Research Units 311 Case 8: Using A Priori Criteria for Culture Evaluation 313 What of DEC, Ciba-Geigy, and Singapore? Did Their Cultures Evolve and Change? 314 Summary and Conclusions 315 Suggestion for the Reader 317 16. A Model of Change Management and the Change Leader 319 The Change Leader Needs Help in Defining the Change Problem or Goal 320 General Change Theory 321 Why Change? Where Is the Pain? 322 The Stages and Steps of Change Management 323 Cautions in Regard to "Culture" Change 337 Summary and Conclusions 339 Suggestions for Readers 341 17. The Change Leader as Learner 343 What Might a Learning Culture Look Like? 344 Why These Dimensions? 349 Learning-Oriented Leadership 350 A Final Thought: Discover the Culture within My Own Personality 354 References 355 Index 367
EDGAR H. SCHEIN is the Society of Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus and a professor emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management. A world-renowned expert on organizational culture credited with founding the field, he is the bestselling author of Humble Inquiry, Helping, and Humble Consulting.