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Peace and Conflict Studies
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Table of Contents

Part I: The Promise of Peace, the Problems of War Chapter 1: The Meanings of Peace The Meanings of Peace Positive and Negative Peace Measuring Peace The Global Peace Index Key Findings of the U.S. Peace Index Culture of Peace A Final Note on the Meanings of Peace Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 2: Peace Studies, Peace Education, and Peace Research Peace Studies, War Studies, and Peace and Conflict Studies Peace Education The Dimensions of Peace and Conflict Studies PCS Today Some Contributions of PCS The Future of PCS A Final Note on Peace and Conflict Studies, Peace Education, and Peace Research Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Journals Websites Chapter 3: The Meanings of Wars Defining Wars The Frequency and Intensity of Wars Historical Trends in War Modern Weaponry Cutting-Edge Military Technologies Has Technology Made War Obsolete? Wars, Empires, Colonialism, and National Liberation The Desirability of Peace Versus Justifications for Wars Social Justice and War Political Ideologies and Militarism Is War Inevitable? Can Nations Change? The Nature and Functions of Conflict A Final Note on War Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 4: Terrorism Versus Counterterrorism What Is Terrorism? Who Are "Terrorists"? A Brief History of Terrorism The Historical Tension Between State Terrorism From Above and Nonstate Terrorism From Below ISIS State and State-Sponsored Terrorism Terrorism in the Name of God The Terrorism Industry and the Mass Media The Global War on Terrorism The Victims and Perpetrators of Global Terrorism and Counterterrorism A Final Note on Terrorism Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 5: The Special Significance of Nuclear Weapons The Nature of Nuclear Weapons The Effects of Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Delivery Systems Strategic Doctrine: Deterrence How a Nuclear War Could Start Nuclear Proliferation Some New Worries Some Good News What Might Be Done A Final Note on Nuclear Weapons Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Part II : The Reasons For Wars Chapter 6: The Individual Level Aggression, Drives, and Instincts Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology Freudian and Post-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory "Innate Depravity" and "Human Nature" Social Learning Theories Gender, War, and Peace Prejudice, Images of the Enemy, and Human Needs Attributions and Just-World Theories of Behavior Altruism, Aggression, and Reconciliation The Attractions of War Inhibitions Against War Some Issues in Nuclear Psychology A Final Note on Individual-Level Explanations of Wars Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 7: The Group Level War: Its Prehistory and Early History Functions of Nontechnological Wars Characteristics of Premodern and Nontechnological Wars Alternatives to Nontechnological Warfare Underlying Group Processes Brief Conclusion on Premodern and Nontechnological Warfare Nations, States, Ethnic Groups, and Nationalism A Brief History of Nationalist Wars Types of Nationalist Wars Nationalist Threats to States Racial and Cultural Intolerance Nationalism and the Public Mood Nationalism and Political Ideology The Question of "National Character" A Final Note on Nationalism and Ethnocentrism Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 8: The State Level Defining the State State Sovereignty The State System Alliances Between States Realpolitik and Raisons d'Etat Internal Cohesion Arms Races A Final Note on War and States Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 9: The Decision-Making Level The Role of Leaders Crisis Decision Making Some Issues Regarding Perception and Cognition A Final Note on Decision Making Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 10: The Ideological, Social, and Economic Levels Conflicting Ideologies Population Pressure and Other Social Stresses Poverty as a Cause of War Imperialism The Economic Effects of Wars The Effects of Military Spending Cultural Conflicts and the "Clash of Civilizations" A Final Note on the Reasons for Wars and Peace Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Part III: Building "Negative Peace" Chapter 11: Peace Movements Popular Attitudes Toward Peace Attention, Success, and Failure Historical and Current Perceptions of War History and Taxonomy of Peace Movements Interconnections Between Peace and Other Social Movements Some Internal Debates Within Peace Movements Some Criticisms of Peace Movements Maintaining the Momentum of Peace Movements A Final Note on Peace Movements Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 12: Diplomacy, Negotiations, and Conflict Resolution Human Conflict Summitry A Brief History of Diplomacy Diplomacy and Military Force Diplomacy and Realpolitik Track II Diplomacy Third-Party Involvement Negotiating Techniques for Resolving Conflict Methods of Integrative Bargaining Additional Negotiating Techniques A Final Note on Conflict Resolution Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 13: Disarmament and Arms Control Different Visions of Disarmament A Brief History of Disarmament Some Current Agreements The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Future Prospects Some Conventional Arms Abuses and Opportunities Pitfalls of Arms Control Agreements Benefits of Arms Control Prospects Economic Conversion A Final Note on Disarmament and Arms Control Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 14: International Cooperation The United Nations Limitations on the UN's Use of Force Other Functions of the United Nations Functionalism Regional Organizations World Government? A Brief History of Plans for World Government Pros and Cons of World Government The Dream of World Government: A Waste of Time? The Prospects for World Government The Uniting of the United States of America: A Rehearsal for a Global Federal System? Toward World Government? A Final Note on International Cooperation Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 15: Peace Through Strength? Balance of Power Problems With Balance of Power The Rise of the BRICS Collective Security National Security via Military Force Appeasement, Provocation, and Deterrence The Use and Abuse of Threats The Prisoner's Dilemma Sanctions Nonprovocative Defense A Final Note on Peace Through Strength Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 16: International Law The Sources of International Law Enforcement of International Law The Conflict between International Law and State Sovereignty Hidden Strengths of International Law The Law of War A Final Note on International Law Notes Questions of Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 17: Ethical and Religious Perspectives Ethics Religious Attitudes Toward War Christian "Realism" Religious Pacifism Nuclear Ethics A Final Note on Ethics and Religion Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Part IV: Building Positive Peace Chapter 18: Human Rights A Brief History of Human Rights Women's Rights Some Human Rights Controversies Refugees LGBT Rights The Legal Status of Human Rights Human Rights and the Nation-State Human Rights and Peace Competing Conceptions of Human Rights The Responsibility to Protect Promoting Human Rights A Final Note on Human Rights Notes Questions for Further Study Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 19: Ecological Well-Being Enhanced Environmental Awareness The Environment and National Security The Tragedy of the Commons Some Major Environmental Problems Some Environmental Principles Environmental Activism Struggling for Sustainability Resource Wars Environmental Ethics A Final Note on Ecological Well-Being Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 20: Economic Well-Being The Problem of Poverty Socioeconomic Development Ethics, Equity and a Bit of History Hunger Measuring Wealth, Poverty, and Income Inequality Population The Demographic-Economic Environmental Trap Future Directions The Case of Costa Rica A Final Note on Economic Well-Being Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 21: Movements Toward Democracy What Is Democracy? A Brief Modern History of Democratization Democracies and Wars Can Democracy Be Exported? Should It Be? A Final Note on Movements Toward Democracy Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 22: National Reconciliation Truth and Reconciliation Commissions In the Absence of Truthful Reconciliation . . . TRC Downsides and Caveats A Final Note on Reconciliation Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 23: Nonviolence What Is Nonviolence? Violence Nonviolent Peace Theorists and Theories Mohandas K. Gandhi Gandhian Nonviolence in Theory and Practice Martin Luther King, Jr. and the U.S. Civil Rights Movement Some Nonviolent Successes Civilian-Based Defense Does Nonviolence "Work"? If So, Why? Prospects for Nonviolence A Final Note on Nonviolence Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 24: Toward a More Peaceful Future Transformations of Self and Society Toward the Future A Final Note on Transformation and the Future Notes Questions for Further Reflection Suggestions for Further Reading

About the Author

David P. Barash (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) has been with the Department of Psychology at the University of Washington since 1973. His studies span animal behavior and social psychology, with concentrations in sociobiology, psychological aspects of the arms race and nuclear war, peace studies, and animal behavior and evolution. A prolific author, he has written more than 250 technical articles and 31 books ranging from monographs to college textbooks to popular trade titles. His book, Introduction to Peace Studies (1991), was the first comprehensive undergraduate textbook in the field of Peace Studies. Charles Webel (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor at the University of New York, Prague. A three-time Fulbright Scholar and graduate of the Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California, Webel has pursued post-doctoral studies at Harvard University, the Max Planck Institute, and the Universities of Paris, Frankfurt, and Heidelberg. He recently taught in the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at Berkeley and the Honors College of University of South Florida. He is the author or editor of seven books.

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