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Personality, Thirteenth Edition Binder Ready Version
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Table of Contents

Preface, V Chapter 1 Personality Theory: From Everyday Observations to Systematic Theories, 1 Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 3 Five Goals for the Personality Theorist, 4 Why Study Personality? 6 Defining Personality, 7 Questions about Persons: What, How, and Why, 9 Answering Questions about Persons Scientifically: Understanding Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change, 9 Structure, 9 Process, 12 Growth and Development, 13 Genetic Determinants , 14 Environmental Determinants , 16 Psychopathology and Behavior Change, 19 Important Issues in Personality Theory, 20 Philosophical View of the Person, 20 Internal and External Determinants of Behavior, 21 Consistency across Situations and Over Time, 21 The Unity of Experience and Action and the Concept of Self, 23 Varying States of Awareness and the Concept of the Unconscious, 24 The Influence of the Past, Present, and Future on Behavior, 24 Can We Have A Science Of Personality? What Kind Of A Science Can It Be? 25 Evaluating Personality Theories, 26 The Personality Theories: An Introduction, 27 The Challenge of Constructing a Personality Theory, 27 The Personality Theories: A Preliminary Sketch, 28 On The Existence of Multiple Theories: Theories As Toolkits, 30 Major Concepts, 31 Review, 32 Chapter 2 The Scientific Study of People, 33 Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 34 The Data of Personality Psychology, 35 Lots of Data, 36 How Do Data From Different Sources Relate To One Another? 37 Fixed Versus Flexible Measures, 39 Personality and Brain Data, 40 Personality Theory And Assessment , 41 Goals of Research: Reliability, Validity, Ethical Behavior, 43 Reliability , 43 Validity, 43 The Ethics of Research and Public Policy, 45 Three General Strategies to Research, 46 Case Studies, 46 Case Studies: An Example, 47 Correlational Studies, 49 Correlational Research: An Example, 50 Experiments, 52 Evaluating Alternative Research Approaches, 57 Case Studies and Clinical Research: Strengths and Limitations, 57 Correlational Research and Questionnaires: Strengths and Limitations, 60 Laboratory, Experimental Research: Strengths and Limitations, 61 Summary of Strengths and Limitations, 63 Personality Theory and Personality Research, 64 Personality Assessment and the Case Of Jim, 65 Major Concepts, 66 Review, 67 Chapter 3 A Psychodynamic Theory: Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality, 69 Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter, 70 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): A View of The Theorist, 70 Freud's View of the Person, 72 The Mind as an Energy System, 73 The Individual in Society, 76 Freud's View of the Science of Personality, 76 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality, 77 Structure, 77 Levels of Consciousness and the Concept of The Unconscious, 78 Id, Ego, And Superego, 87 Process, 90 Life and Death Instincts, 90 The Dynamics of Functioning, 91 Anxiety, Mechanisms of Defense, and Contemporary Research on Defensive Processes, 92 Growth and Development, 99 The Development of the Instincts and Stages of Development, 99 The Development of Thinking Processes, 109 Major Concepts, 111 Review, 112 Chapter 4 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research, 113 Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter, 114 Psychodynamic Personality Assessment: Projective Tests, 115 The Logic of Projective Tests, 115 The Rorschach Inkblot Test, 116 The Thematic Apperception Test (Tat), 119 Projective Tests: Do They Work? 120 Psychopathology, 122 Personality Types, 122 Conflict and Defense, 124 Psychological Change, 125 Insights into the Unconscious: Free Association and Dream Interpretation, 126 The Therapeutic Process: Transference, 126 A Case Example: Little Hans, 128 The Case of Jim, 132 Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (Tat) Data, 132 Comments on the Data, 134 Related Theoretical Conceptions and Recent Developments, 135 Two Early Challenges to Freud: Adler and Jung, 135 Alfred Adler (1870-1937), 135 Carl G. Jung (1875-1961), 137 The Cultural and Interpersonal Emphasis: Horney and Sullivan, 141 Reinterpreting Motivational Forces, 141 Object Relations Theory, 144 Self Psychology and Narcissism, 145 Attachment Theory, 147 Critical Evaluation, 155 Scientific Observation: The Database, 156 Theory: Systematic? 156 Theory: Testable? 157 Theory: Comprehensive? 157 Applications, 158 Major Contributions and Summary, 158 Major Concepts, 160 Review, 160 Chapter 5 A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers's Person-Centered Theory Of Personality, 163 Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 164 Carl R. Rogers (1902-1987): A View of the Theorist, 165 Rogers's View of the Person, 168 The Subjectivity of Experience, 168 A Phenomenological Perspective, 170 Rogers's View of the Science of Personality, 170 The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers, 171 Structure, 171 The Self, 171 Measuring Self-Concept, 173 Process, 176 Self-Actualization, 177 Self-Consistency and Congruence, 178 Growth and Development, 184 Major Concepts, 189 Review, 190 Chapter 6 Rogers's Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, And Contemporary Research, 191 Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 193 Clinical Applications, 193 Psychopathology, 193 Psychological Change, 194 Outcomes of Client-Centered Therapy, 198 Presence, 200 A Case Example: Mrs. Oak, 201 The Case of Jim, 203 Related Theoretical Conceptions, 205 The Human Potential Movement, 205 The Positive Psychology Movement, 207 Classifying Human Strengths, 208 The Virtues of Positive Emotions, 209 Flow, 209 Existentialism, 210 Recent Developments in Theory and Research, 215 Discrepancies among Parts of the Self, 215 Fluctuations in Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Worth, 216 Authenticity and Internally Motivated Goals, 217 Self-Determination Theory Cross-Cultural Research on the Self, 219 Critical Evaluation, 223 Scientific Observation: The Database, 223 Theory: Systematic? 224 Theory: Testable? 224 Theory: Comprehensive? 225 Applications, 226 Major Contributions and Summary, 226 Major Concepts, 227 Review, 228 Chapter 7 Trait Theories of Personality: Allport, Eysenck, and Cattell, 229 Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter, 230 A View of the Trait Theorists, 231 Trait Theory's View of the Person, 232 The Trait Concept, 232 Trait Theory's View of the Science of Personality, 233 Scientific Functions Served By Trait Constructs, 233 Trait Theories of Personality: Basic Perspectives Shared by Trait Theorists, 235 The Trait Theory of Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967), 236 Traits: Personality Structure in Allport's Theory, 237 Functional Autonomy, 238 Idiographic Research, 239 Comment on Allport, 240 Identifying Primary Trait Dimensions: Factor Analysis, 240 The Factor-Analytic Trait Theory of Raymond B. Cattell (1905-1998), 243 Surface And Source Traits: Personality Structure in Cattell's Theory, 243 Sources of Evidence: L-Data, Q-Data, and Ot-Data, 244 Stability and Variability in Behavior, 247 Comment on Cattell, 247 The Three-Factor Theory of Hans J. Eysenck (1916-1997), 250 ''Superfactors": Personality Structure in Eysenck's Theory, 251 Measuring the Factors, 254 Biological Bases of Personality Traits, 255 Extraversion and Social Behavior, 257 Psychopathology and Behavior Change, 258 Comment on Eysenck, 258 Major Concepts, 259 Review, 260 Chapter 8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model; Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality, 261 Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter, 262 The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research Evidence, 263 Analysis of Trait Terms in Natural Language and in Questionnaires, 263 The Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis, 267 Cross-Cultural Research: Are The Big Five Dimensions Universal? 268 The Big Five in Personality Questionnaires, 271 The Neo-Pi-R and Its Hierarchical Structure: Facets, 271 Integration of Eysenck's and Cattell's Factors within the Big Five, 273 Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings, 274 The Five-Factor Theory, Growth and Development, 279 Age Differences throughout Adulthood, 279 Stability and Change in Personality, 282 Maybe We Missed One? The Six-Factor Model, 283 Applications of the Big Five Model, 285 The Case of Jim, 288 Factor-Analytic Trait-Based Assessment, 288 Personality Stability: Jim 5 and 20 Years Later, 289 Self-Ratings and Ratings by Wife On The Neo-Pi, 291 The Person-Situation Controversy, 292 Critical Evaluation, 295 Scientific Observation: The Database, 296 Theory: Systematic? 296 Theory: Testable? 297 Theory: Comprehensive? 297 Applications, 298 Major Contributions and Summary, 299 Major Concepts, 300 Review, 300 Chapter 9 Biological Foundations of Personality, 301 Questions To Be Addressed in this Chapter, 302 Temperament, 303 Constitution and Temperament: Early Views, 304 Constitution and Temperament: Longitudinal Studies, 305 Biology, Temperament and Personality Development: Contemporary Research, 306 Inhibited and Uninhibited Children: Research of Kagan and Colleagues, 306 Interpreting Data on Biology and Personality, 310 Evolution, Evolutionary Psychology, and Personality, 314 Evolutionary Psychology, 315 Social Exchange and the Detection of Cheating, 317 Sex Differences: Evolutionary Origins? 318 Male-Female Mate Preferences, 319 Causes of Jealousy, 320 Evolutionary Origins Of Sex Differences: How Strong Are The Data?, 321 Genes and Personality, 323 Behavioral Genetics, 324 Selective Breeding Studies, 324 Twin Studies, 324 Adoption Studies, 326 Heritability Coefficient, 327 Heritability of Personality: Findings, 328 Some Caveats, 329 Molecular Genetic Paradigms, 330 Environments and Gene-Environment Interactions, 332 Mood, Emotion, and the Brain, 336 Left and Right Hemispheric Dominance, 336 Neurotransmitters and Temperament: Dopamine and Serotonin, 338 Plasticity: Biology as both Cause and Effect, 341 Neuroscientific Investigations of "Higher-Level" Psychological Functions, 344 Summary Major Concepts, 349 Review, 350 Chapter 10 Behaviorism and the Learning Approaches to Personality, 351 Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 352 Behaviorism's View of the Person, 353 Behaviorism's View of the Science of Personality, 354 Environmental Determinism and Its Implications for the Concept of Personality, 354 Experimentation, Observable Variables, and Simple Systems, 356 Watson, Pavlov, and Classical Conditioning, 358 Watson's Behaviorism, 358 Pavlov's Theory of Classical Conditioning, 360 Psychopathology and Change, 363 Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning, 371 A View of the Theorist, 371 Skinner's Theory of Personality, 374 Structure, 374 Process: Operant Conditioning, 375 Growth and Development, 377 Psychopathology, 378 Behavioral Assessment, 379 Behavior Change, 381 Free Will? 382 Critical Evaluation, 383 Scientific Observation: The Database, 384 Theory: Systematic? 384 Theory: Testable? 385 Theory: Comprehensive? 385 Applications, 386 Major Contributions and Summary, 386 Major Concepts, 387 Review, 388 Chapter 11 A Cognitive Theory: George A. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory Of Personality, 389 Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 390 George A. Kelly (1905-1966): A View of the Theorist, 392 Kelly's View of the Science of Personality, 393 Kelly's View of the Person, 396 The Personality Theory of George A. Kelly, 397 Types of Constructs and The Construct System, 399 Assessment: The Role Construct Repertory (Rep) Test, 401 Unique Information Revealed By Personal Construct Testing, 403 Cognitive Complexity/Simplicity, 403 Process, 407 Growth and Development, 413 Clinical Applications, 414 Psychopathology, 414 Change and Fixed-Role Therapy, 415 The Case of Jim, 417 Rep Test: Personal Construct Theory, 417 Comments on the Data, 419 Related Points Of View and Recent Developments, 419 Critical Evaluation, 420 Scientific Observation: The Database, 420 Theory: Systematic? 421 Theory: Testable? 421 Theory: Comprehensive? 422 Applications, 423 Major Contributions and Summary, 423 Major Concepts, 424 Review, 425 Chapter 12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel, 427 Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter, 428 Relating Social-Cognitive Theory to the Previous Theories, 428 A View of the Theorists, 429 Social-Cognitive Theory's View of the Person, 432 Social-Cognitive Theory's View of the Science of Personality, 433 Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Structure, 433 Competencies and Skills, 433 Beliefs and Expectancies, 434 The Self and Self-Efficacy Beliefs, 436 Self-Efficacy and Performance, 438 Goals, 441 Evaluative Standards, 442 The Nature of Social-Cognitive Personality Structures, 444 Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Process, 445 Reciprocal Determinism, 445 Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System (Caps), 446 Social-Cognitive Theory of Growth and Development, 450 Observational Learning (Modeling), 450 Acquisition versus Performance, 452 Vicarious Conditioning, 453 Self-Regulation and Motivation, 455 Self-Efficacy, Goals, and Self-Evaluative Reactions, 456 Self-Control and Delay of Gratification, 458 Learning Delay of Gratification Skills, 458 Mischel's Delay Of Gratification Paradigm, 460 Summary of the Social-Cognitive View of Growth and Development, 462 Major Concepts, 464 Review, 464 Chapter 13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research, 467 Beliefs about the Self And Self-Schemas, 469 Self-Schemas and Reaction-Time Methods, 471 Self-Based Motives and Motivated Information Processing, 474 Learning versus Performance Goals, 476 Causes of Learning versus Performance Goals: Implicit Theories, 478 Standards of Evaluation, 480 Self-Standards, Self-Discrepancies, Emotion, and Motivation, 481 A ''General Principles" Approach to Personality, 484 Psychopathology And Change: Modeling, Self-Conceptions, And Perceived Self-Efficacy, 486 Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, And Depression, 487 Self-Efficacy and Health, 488 Therapeutic Change: Modeling and Guided Mastery, 489 Stress and Coping, 494 Ellis's Rational-Emotive Therapy, 496 Beck's Cognitive Therapy for Depression, 498 The Case of Jim, 500 Critical Evaluation, 502 Scientific Observation: The Database, 502 Theory: Systematic? 503 Theory: Testable? 503 Theory: Comprehensive? 503 Applications, 504 Major Contributions and Summary, 505 Major Concepts, 505 Review, 506 Chapter 14 Personality in Context: Interpersonal Relations, Culture, and Development across the Course of Life, 507 Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 509 Interpersonal Relationships, 510 Rejection Sensitivity, 510 Transference in Interpersonal Relationships, 514 Meeting Academic and Social Challenges: Optimistic Strategies and Defensive Pessimism, 516 Personality Consistency in Context, 517 Personality Development in Socioeconomic Context, 520 Personality Functioning Across the Life Span, 523 Psychological Resilience in the Later Years, 523 Emotional Life in Older Adulthood: Socioemotional Selectivity, 524 Persons in Cultures, 525 Two Strategies for Thinking about Personality and Culture, 525 Personality and Self As Socially Constructed Within Culture, 528 Putting Personality in Context into Practice, 531 Assessing Personality in Context: A Case Study, 531 Personality Processes in Context: Fostering Social Change, 536 Summary, 538 Major Concepts, 538 Review, 539 Chapter 15 Assessing Personality Theory and Research, 541 Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter, 542 On Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change, 542 Personality Structure, 542 Process, 543 Growth and Development, 545 Psychopathology and Change, 545 The Case of Jim, 548 How Did They Do? A Critical Evaluation of Personality Theories and Research, Scientific Observation: The Database, 549 Theory: Systematic? 551 Theory: Testable? 552 Theory: Comprehensive? 552 Applications, 553 A Final Summing Up: Theories as Toolkits, 554 Review, 555 Glossary, 557 References, 567 Name Index, 603 Subject Index, 609

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