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Philosophy Here and Now
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Table of Contents

Preface: CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING The Good of Philosophy Philosophical Terrain 1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE PLATO: The Republic 1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY Reasons and Arguments Reading Philosophy Fallacious Reasoning Narrative: Plato, The Trial and Death of Socrates CHAPTER 2. GOD AND RELIGION 2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY Why Religion Matters Overview: The Philosopher's Quest Belief and Disbelief 2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD Cosmological Arguments AQUINAS: Summa Theologica CRAIG: Reasonable Faith Design Arguments PALEY: Natural Theology HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Ontological Arguments ANSELM: Proslogium KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL Rowe's Argument from Evil ROWE: Philosophy of Religion The Free Will Defense SWINBURNE: Is There a God? The Soul-Making Defense HICK: Evil and the God of Love 2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism ROWE: Philosophy of Religion SWINBURNE: The Existence of God 2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON James: Pragmatic Faith JAMES: "The Will to Believe" MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification Pascal: Betting on God PASCAL: Pensees and Other Writings 2.6 EASTERN RELIGIONS Buddhism SUMEDHO: Buddha-Nature RAHULA: What the Buddha Taught Hinduism Daoism CHUANG TZU: All Things Are One LAO-TZU: Tao-te ching Fiction: Arthur C. Clarke, "The Star" CHAPTER 3. MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN Ethics and Morality Moral Theories Religion and Morality SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened to Good and Evil? 3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM Subjective Relativism Cultural Relativism 3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES Utilitarianism MILL: "What Utilitarianism Is" Ethical Egoism 3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals 3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics 3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE JAGGAR: "Feminist Ethics" CROSTHWAITE: "Gender and Bioethics" HELD: The Ethics of Care BAIER: "The Need for More Than Justice" 3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus 3.8 CONFUCIANISM CONFUCIUS: Analects NOSS: A History of the World's Religions Fiction: Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas" CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY 4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM 4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason SCHICK: Doing Philosophy DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy SEARLE: Mind 4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY SMART: "Sensations and Brain Processes" CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind NAGEL: "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?" 4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE FODOR: "The Mind-Body Problem" BLOCK: "Troubles with Functionalism" SEARLE: Mind 4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind Fiction: Terry Bisson, "They're Made out of Meat" CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM 5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM 5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM D'HOLBACH: "Of the System of Man's Free Agency" JAMES: "The Dilemma of Determinism" 5.3 COMPATIBILISM LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind ROWE: "Two Concepts of Freedom" 5.4 LIBERTARIANISM VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will TAYLOR: Metaphysics 5.5 SARTRE'S PROFOUND FREEDOM SARTRE: "Existentialism Is a Humanism" Fiction: Thomas D. Davis, "A Little Omniscience Goes a Long Way" CHAPTER 6. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD Plato's Rationalism PLATO: Meno Descartes' Doubt DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes' Certainty DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN Locke LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Berkeley BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge Hume HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE AINLEY: "Feminist Philosophy" ANTONY: "Embodiment and Epistemology" ANDERSON: "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science" COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism Fiction: Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass CHAPTER 7. AESTHETICS 7.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY 7.2 WHAT IS ART? BELL: Art 7.3 AESTHETIC VALUE 7.4 PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND HUME ARISTOTLE: The Poetics HUME: Of the Standard of Taste Fiction: Edgar Allan Poe, "The Oval Portrait" CHAPTER 8. THE JUST SOCIETY 8.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 8.2 PLATO'S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT PLATO: The Republic 8.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES Hobbes HOBBES: Leviathan Locke LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government Rawls RAWLS: A Theory of Justice 8.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES MARX AND ENGELS: Manifesto of the Communist Party 8.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family MILLER: Political Philosophy Fiction: William Golding, Lord of the Flies CHAPTER 9. THE MEANING OF LIFE 9.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE 9.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING TOLSTOY: My Confession SCHOPENHAUER: "On the Sufferings of the World" BAGGINI: What's It All About? 9.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING Meaning from Above TOLSTOY: My Confession BAGGINI: What's It All About? Meaning from Below EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fiction: Voltaire, "The Good Brahmin"

About the Author

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several textbooks, including Writing Philosophy, Second Edition (2018), Living Philosophy, Second Edition (2017), The Moral Life, Sixth Edition (2017), and Concise Guide to Critical Thinking (2017), all published by Oxford University Press.

Reviews

"I can't imagine not using Philosophy Here and Now. My experience with the textbook has been completely positive. When students let you know how much they like reading the text, you know you made the right decision in adopting the book."--Teresa Cantrell, University of Louisville "This is the best text I have found for my introductory class. Questions and exercises engage students' lives directly and ask them to explain their own understanding/beliefs about a matter. The appendix on writing philosophy papers can easily stand on its own as the most valuable tool I use in my class. I have yet to find anything at this price with comparable content."--Stephen Orr, Solano Community College "This is a truly excellent book that meets students where they are and very gently introduces them to material that can be quite alien and daunting to them."--Doug Weber, Castleton University and College of Saint Joseph "Philosophy Here and Now frames and explains each topic so that students can easily understand the material. It covers the right amount for one semester, and the supplemental resources are helpful to faculty and students."--Kristin Borgwald, Miami Dade College, Wolfson Campus "Above all, Vaughn's text does what few others are able to do; it shows that philosophy actually matters."--Daniel Bramer, Holy Family University "Lewis Vaughn makes some difficult concepts easier when he engages students in the chapter overviews with some very simple ideas."--Karen Moore, Cerro Coso Community College

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