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Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual, Second Edition
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Table of Contents

Section I
Introduction
Management Requirements
Productivity Factors
Climatic Factors
Moving Up the Yield Scale
Product Quality
Soil Fertility Principles
Fertile Soil Defined
Making and Keeping a Soil "Fertile"
Biological Factors
An "Ideal Soil"
Soil Fertility Management Concepts
Multiple Factor Yield Influence
Soil Condition Related to Deficiency in a Major Element and Micronutrient
Elemental Content of the Soil and Soil Solution
Plant Nutrition Principles
Photosynthesis
The Function of Plants
Determination of Essentiality
Essential Element Content in Plants
Classification of the Thirteen Essential Mineral Elements
Role of the Essential Plant Nutrient Elements
Plant Nutrient Element Sources
Element Absorption and Translocation
Elemental Accumulation
Element Absorption and Plant Genetics
Diagnostic Plant Symptoms of Essential Plant Nutrient Element Insufficiencies
The Plant Root
Introduction
Root Function
Root Hairs
Lateral Roots
The Rhizosphere
Root Ion Absorption
Root Crops
How to be a Diagnostician
The Diagnostic Approach
Being a Diagnostician
Diagnostic Factors
Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures
Scouting
Weather Conditions
Factors Affecting Essential Nutrient Element Concentrations in Plants
Plant (Crop) Wilting
Summary
Certified Crop Advisor Programs

Section II: Physical and Physiochemical Characteristics of Soil
Soil Taxonomy, Horizontal Characteristics, and Clay Minerals
Soil Orders (U.S. System of Soil Taxonomy)
Designations for Soil Horizons and Layers
Physical Properties of Soils
Textural Classification
Soil Separates or Primary Soil Separates
Soil Separate Properties
Soil Texture Characterization Definitions
Soil Structure
Tillage Practices
Water-Holding Capacity
Physiochemical Properties of Soil
Soil Separate Properties
Major Phyllosilicate Minerals in Soils
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of a Soil Based on Texture
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Determination of a Soil
Anion Exchange Capacity
Soil pH: Its Determination and Interpretation
Definitions
Causes of Soil Acidity
Water pH Determination of Mineral Soil, Organic Soil, and Organic Soilless Rooting Media
pH Determination using a Calibrated pH Meter
Other Soil pH Determination Procedure
Salt pH Determination for a Mineral Soil
pH Interpretation: Mineral Soil
pH Interpretation: Organic Soils
pH Interpretation: Organic Soilless Medium
Soil pH Constancy
Plant Root Function
Soil Acidity and NPK Fertilizer Efficiency
Soil pH Effect on Elemental Availability and/or Soil Solution Composition
Soil Buffer pH
pH Determination of Water
Soil Organic Matter
Definitions of Soil Organic Matter and Its Components
Humus
Soil Organic Matter Characteristics
Methods of Soil Organic Matter Determination
Management Requirements for High Organic Matter Content Soils
Adverse Affects of Organic Matter Additions

Section III: Plant Elemental Requirements and Associated Elements
Major Essential Plant Elements
Terminology
Methods of Expression
Established Date for Essentiality/Researchers
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Major Essential Element Properties
Micronutrients Considered Essential to Plants
Terminology
Established Date for Essentiality/Researchers
Content and Function
Soil and Plant Species Associations
Micronutrient Characteristics
Micronutrient Properties
Possible Additional Essential Micronutrients
Elements Considered Beneficial to Plants
The A to Z Nutrient Solution
Elements Essential for Animals
Basis for Essentiality for Beneficial Elements
Potential Essential Elements
"New" Beneficial Elements
Element Substitution
Form of Response
Summary
Elements Considered Toxic to Plants
Introduction
The Nature of Elemental Toxicity
Aluminum and Copper Toxicity
Other Elements
Plant Species Factor
The Heavy Metals
Trace Elements Found in Plants
Definition
Elements Categorized as Trace Elements
High Soil Content Elements
Availability Factors
Accumulator Plants and Elements
Symbiotic Element

Section IV: Methods of Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Assessment
Soil Testing
Purposes
Field Sampling
Soil Laboratory Selection
Laboratory Soil Testing Procedures
Interpretation of a Soil Test Result
Soil Test Result Tracking (Monitoring)
Liming and Fertilizer Use Strategies
Plant Analysis and Tissue Testing
Plant Analysis Objectives
Sequence of Procedures
Sampling Techniques
Plant Tissue Handling, Preparation, and Analysis
Methods of Interpretation
Word Classification of Elemental Concentrations
As a Diagnostic Technique
Experience Required
Data Logging/Tracking of Plant Analyses
Utilization of Plant Analyses for Nutrient Element Management
Tissue Testing
Indirect Evaluation Procedures

Section V: Amendments for Soil Fertility Maintenance
Lime and Liming Materials
Liming Terms
Liming Materials
Liming Materials and Their Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE)
Mesh Size
Quality Factor Designation
Lime Requirement (LR)
Soil Test Ratio of Ca to Mg Determines Form of Limestone to Apply
Liming Rate Determined by Acidifying Effect of Fertilizer
"Lime Shock"
Lime Incorporation
Depth of Incorporation
Subsoil pH
Inorganic Chemical Fertilizers and Their Properties
Definitions
Fertilizer Terminology
Characteristics of the Major Elements as Fertilizer
Conversion Factors for the Major Essential Fertilizer Elements
Characteristics of the Micronutrients as Fertilizer
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Fertilizers
Naturally Occurring Inorganic Fertilizers
Organic Fertilizers and Their Properties
Value
Composted Animal Manures
Animal Manure Major Element Composition
Other Organic Materials
Soil and Plant Factors
Fertilizer Placement
Objectives
Methods of Fertilizer Placement
Soil Water, Irrigation, and Water Quality
Soil Water Terminology
Soil Factors Affecting Soil Water-Holding Capacity and Movement
Drainage
Irrigation Methods
Irrigation Water Quality
Water Treatment Procedures
What is Water?

Section VI: Methods of Soilless Plant Production
Hydroponics
Hydroponics Defined
Historical Events
Hydroponic Techniques
Hydroponic Growing Systems
Rooting Media
Water Quality
The Nutrient Solution
Reagents and Nutrient Solution Formulations
Concentration Range and Ratios
pH Interpretation-Hydroponic Nutrient Solution
Reconstitution of the Nutrient Solution
Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Precipitates
Soilless Rooting and/or Growing Media
Soilless Media Ingredients
Soilless Media Formulations
Physical Properties
Physiochemical Properties
Control of pH
Use Formulations
Bag Culture Systems
"Fertility" Determination Procedure for an Organic Soilless Mix

Section VII: Miscellaneous
Organic Farming/Gardening
Chemicalization of Crop Production
"Organically Grown" Defined
Suitable Inorganic Fertilizer Materials
Suitable Organic Fertilizers
Organic Soil Fertility Management
Soil Physical Properties
Food Safety and Quality Issues
Weather and Climatic Conditions
Definitions
Climatic Factors
Weather as a Diagnostic Factor
Best Management Practices (BMPs)
Origin
Best Management Practice Application Broadened
Best Practice
Important Protocol Considerations
Precision Farming
Section Appendices
Glossary
Formulation and Use of Soil Extraction Reagents
Preparation Procedures and Elemental Content Determination for Plant Tissue
Weights and Measures
Reference Books and Texts
References
Index

About the Author

J. Benton Jones, Jr. is Professor Emeritus at the University of Georgia. He is President of GroSystems, Inc., a consulting company. He has authored 8 books and is continuing to publish articles on hydroponics and plant nutrition. He is a member of the Clemson University faculty and is assisting with the revision of soil test-based lime and fertilizer recommendations and providing guidance in soil fertility/plant nutrition inquiries.

Reviews

Praise for the First Edition

"This book has the admirable quality of being both organized to facilitate rapid look-up of information and being written in a readable style."
-The Growing EDGE (out of print)

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