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Political Philosophy


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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments and Preface to Second Edition Chapter 1. Introduction Politics and Human Nature The Idea of Human Nature or the Human Good as 'Function': Normative Anthropology My 'Story' of Political Philosophy-and my Cast of Characters Enduring Issues in Political Philosophy Chapter 2. Classical Greek Political Philosophy: Beginnings Nature or Nurture? Protagoras' Democratic Traditionalism The Functionalistic Foundation of the Political Aretai in Nature (physis) Glaucon's Contractarian Political Theory Chapter 3. Plato: Government for Corrupted Intellects Socrates' Polis of Pigs The 'Republic' of Plato's Republic The Human Ergon and the Purpose of Political Organization Furthering Rationality by Means of the Polis? Why Should Anyone Return to the Cave? Plato and 'the Rule of Law' Chapter 4. Aristotle: Politics as the Master Art The Human Good: Intellectual and Political Acting Correctly (eupraxia) as a Grand End? The Polis as a Complete Community The Role of Politics: The Master Art? Concluding Thoughts Chapter 5. Cicero: The Cosmic Significance of Politics Cicero as Champion of the Res Publica What is Right (ius): The Rule of Law (lex) and Normative Anthropology Virtues, Duties, and Laws Chapter 6. Christianity: A Political Religion? The New Testament and Beyond Pauline Cosmopolitanism The Roman Empire Christianized The Advent of Tempora Christiana (the Christian era) Chapter 7. Augustine, Aquinas and Marsilius of Padua: Politics for Saints, Sinners, and Heretics St. Augustine The Two Rationales of Augustine's City of God The Two Cities Theoretical Political Consequences Christians as Good Citizens of Secular States? St. Thomas Aquinas The Human Function: Nature and Praeternature The 'Parts' of the Eternal Law: Divine, Natural, and Human Law Political Forms, Procedures, and Other Particulars Aquinas' Political Philosophy: Some Concluding Observations Marsilius of Padua The Autonomous but Coercive Regnum (Political Community) and its Law The Political Wisdom and Authority of the Whole Body of Citizens (or the weightier part thereof) Chapter 8. Hobbes and Locke: Seventeenth-Century Contractarianism Thomas Hobbes: Natural Law Simplified and Modernized Natural Law, Natural Rights, and the Human Function Law, Contracts, and the 'Leviathan' The Civil State: Sovereigns and Subjects Concluding Thoughts on God and Sovereigns John Locke: Divinely Mandated Autonomy, Natural Rights, and Property Moral Knowledge and Human Motivation The State of Nature and the Social Contract Property and Liberal Political Theory: Lockean Origins Chapter 9. Rousseau and Marx: Reaction to Bourgeois-Liberalism Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Autonomous Citizens for the true Republic The Intertwined Development of Civilization, Corruption, and Morality The Social Contract and the Emile: Republics and Republican Citizens Politics and the Human Function Karl Marx: Distortion of the Human Function within the Bourgeois-Liberal State Political Emancipation and the Bourgeois-Liberal State Alienation and the Human Function Historical Materialism and the Coming of Communism Concluding Thoughts: The Cook Shops of the Future Made Present Chapter 10. Mill and Rawls: Liberalism Ascendant? John Stuart Mill: Perfectionist Liberalism Mill's Liberalism Liberty and Government Democratic Republicanism Concluding Thought on Mill and Liberalism John Rawls: Political (and Non-Perfectionist?) Liberalism Egalitarian Justice as the "First Virtue of Social Institutions": Basic Assumptions Rawls' Two Principles of Justice: What they Apply to and Why Consensus, Public Reason, and the Distinction between Citoyen and Bourgeois The Ultimate Justification of Rawlsian liberalism? Epilogue Notes

About the Author

Michael White is Professor of Philosophy, Arizona State University


"This book is a challenging book, in the best sense. White's central thesis, while controversial, is nevertheless important, consistently argued -- both historically and philosophically, and presented in a thoroughly engaging manner."--Philosophy in Review "A masterpiece of clear thinking, this well-written text will challenge many to reflect more closely on matters often too quickly decided. The result is more than one might ever have expected of an introductory text of this size; indeed a better introduction to the subject is hard to imagine."--Alastair Hannay, University of Oslo

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