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Practical Manual of Groundwater Microbiology


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Table of Contents

Water Wells have Natural Filters: The Challenge
Feeding the Natural Filters
Other Factors Associated with the Natural Filter
Maintaining the Natural Filters around Water Wells
Failure of the Natural Filters and the Symptoms in the Water Well
Microbes in Water Wells: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
What Are Microbes?
Where Are Microbes?
Sterility, Health, and Microbes
Bacterial Groups of Significance in Water Wells
Coliform Bacteria
Iron-Related Bacteria
Slime-Forming Bacteria
Total Bacteria
Microorganisms in Water Wells
Role of the Molds (Fungi) in Water Wells
Role of Protozoa in Water Wells
Role of Viruses in Water Wells
Acute Gastrointestinal Illness of Unknown Etiology
Sampling Procedures
Sampling Water Wells
Single Sampling Procedure for a Water Well
Multiple Sampling from the Water Well
Zones of Interrogation Projections (ZIP) Testing
Routine Sampling
Symptoms of Failure: Early Warnings and Eventual Catastrophes
Sustainable Wells
Historical Records
Biological Assay Data
Biofouling: The Impact of Biofilms on Specific Capacity
Significance of Drawdown Changes
Oil-Lubricated Pumps: The Risks
Considerations in Deciding upon a Treatment Strategy
Remedies from a Drop to a Drum
Preventative Maintenance (PM) Servicing
Water Wells That Are Failing without Routine PM or Regeneration
Regeneration from the Edge of Catastrophe
Types of Chemicals Employed in Regeneration
Chemical Selection for Use in the Regeneration of Wells
Sequestration Strategies
Use of Heat
Chemical Blend Selection
Regeneration Practices
Spheres of Influence: The Coming and the Going
Risks from Flooding Causing Compromise to the Wells
Groundwater under the Direct Influence of Surface Water
Art of Well Development
Illustrated Guide for Groundwater Microbiology
Natural Filters around Water Wells
Changes in the Position of the Biomass around a Well
Growth of Biomass and Impact on Well Characteristics
Groundwater Flow through Four Biofouling Water Wells
Diagrammatic Presentation of Bacterial Cell
Cross Section of Attached Biomass
Major Forms of Biofouling in Water Wells
Forms of Coliform Bacteria
Forms of Iron-Related Bacteria
Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
Fungi (Molds)
Pathogenic (Health-Risk) Protozoa
Size of Viruses and Bacteria
Growing Bacteria
Agar Dip-Paddle Technique
Slope BART Culture Technique
BART Test Method
Rodina Test for IRB
Cholodny Test for IRB
Grainge and Lund Test for IRB
George Alford Quick and Dirty Test for IRB
Staining Methods for IRB
Agar Spreadplate Enumeration Method for Bacteria
Bacterial Colony Forms Growing on Agar Plates
ATP Test Method for Detecting Bacterial Activity
Comparison of ATP to Time Lapse Using BART Testers
Theoretical Functioning of the BART Tester
Types of BART Testers in Common Use
Protocol for Filling BART Field Tester
Common Sites for Early BART Reactions
IRB-BART Reaction Patterns
SRB-BART Reaction Patterns
SLYM-BART Reaction Patterns
HAB-BART Reaction Patterns
DN-BART Reaction Patterns
N-BART Reaction Patterns
ALGE-BART Reaction Patterns
APB-BART Reaction Patterns
Relationship of Time Lapse to Population
ORP Relationship to IRB-BART Reactions
ORP Relationship to SRB-BART Reactions
Effects of Sampling during Pumping on Biomass Characteristics
Location of Biomass Shifting during Plugging of a Well
Primary Effect of Water Well Treatments
Mechanisms for Bacteriologically Influenced Infestation of Water Wells
Zones of Interrogation Projection I
Zones of Interrogation Projection II
Zones of Interrogation Projection III
Relationship between Bacterial Activity and Specific Capacity in Biofouling Water Wells
Movement of the Redox Front around a Well Suffering Microbiologically Influenced Plugging
Treatment Impacts on a Biofouling Water Well
Video-Camera Logging of Biofouled Water Wells
Methane (Natural Gas) Eruptions in Water Wells
Harmonic Pulsing Activities in the Plugging Biomass
Metal Bioaccumulation around an Active Water Well
Impact of Treatments on the Sequential Releases of Metals from the Biomass
Risks from Applying Phosphorus Compounds as a Part of Treatment Strategies for Biofouled Water Wells
Maturation of Biofouling Water Wells, Impacts on Specific Capacity, and Bacterial Activity
Control Strategies for the Removal of Biomass
Comparison of Well Regeneration with Preventative Maintenance (Servicing)
Shock, Disrupt, and Disperse Phases of Water Well Regeneration
Effects of Distortions in the Location of Biomass on the Efficiency of Treatments
Treatment of Fractured Hard Rock Wells
Impact of Treatment on the Biomass Involved in Biofouling
Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Water Wells
Effect of the Growth of Various Microbial Communities on the Function of Water Wells
Sequential Risk Analysis for a Test Pumping of a Well
Biofouling of Relief Wells in Earth-Filled Dam Structures Used to Create Water Reservoirs
Biofouling of Horizontal Wells
Impact of Flooding on Producing Water Wells
Direct and Indirect Impacts of Water Wells Flooded by Surface Waters
Flood Impact on a Biofouled Well
Protection of Wells from Flooding
Impact of Flooding on the Position of the Redox
Front around Water Wells
Impact of Oil and Gas Wells on Neighboring Water Wells
Theoretical Functioning of the BART Tester
Positioning of Biomass around Slotted Screens in Water Wells That Are Biofouling
Treatment Sequences in Biofouled Water Well Regeneration
Appendix A: Microbiological Test Methods
Appendix B: Biological Activity Reaction Test (BART)
Appendix C: Video Borehole Log
Appendix D: Treatment Strategies
Appendix E: Sustainability of Water Wells
Appendix F: Interaction between Neighboring Water Wells
Appendix G: Standard Microbiological Approaches for Groundwater Challenges, Concepts (Summary)
Appendix H: Methods for Obtaining Water Samples for
Microbiological Testing
Appendix I: Conservation of the Water Sample between Collection and Testing
Appendix J: Definition of the Influence That Ambient Water Temperatures Have on Tests
Appendix K: Protocols to Obtain Water Samples
Appendix L: Application of BART Testers
Appendix M: Evaluation of Risk Potentials
Appendix N: Regulatory Considerations Concerning Phosphorus
Appendix O: Application of Heat as a Component in the Rehabilitation/Regeneration of Biofouled Water Wells
Appendix P: Application of Vegetable Oil as a Substitute for Hydrocarbon-Based Oils to Lubricate Pumps
Appendix Q: Frequently Asked Questions
Appendix R: Glossary
Appendix S: Well Questionnaire (First Enquiry)
Appendix T: Further Reading

About the Author

Droycon Bioconcepts Inc., Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

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