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Practical Organic Chemistry


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 The range of experimental techniques.- 1.2 Good laboratory practice.- 1.3 Safety in the laboratory.- 1.3.1 Chemical hazards.- 1.3.2 Fire hazard.- 1.3.3 Vacuum and pressure work.- 1.4 Keeping records.- 1.4.1 Recording experimental data.- 1.4.2 Final reports.- 1.5 Samples and spectra.- 2 Carrying out reactions.- 2.1 Basic techniques.- 2.1.1 Apparatus.- 2.1.2 Addition of reactants.- 2.1.3 Stirring reaction mixtures.- 2.1.4 Temperature control.- 2.1.5 Reactions under anhydrous conditions and inert atmospheres.- 2.2 Special techniques.- 2.2.1 The use of air-and water-sensitive reagents.- 2.2.2 Reactions in liquid ammonia.- 2.2.3 Catalytic hydrogenation.- 2.2.4 Photochemistry.- 2.2.5 Flash vacuum pyrolysis.- 3 Isolation and purification of reaction products.- 3.1 Primary work-up procedures.- 3.1.1 General considerations.- 3.1.2 Removal of solvent by rotary evaporator.- 3.1.3 Extraction procedures.- 3.1.4 Drying organic solutions.- 3.1.5 Separation of the target product(s).- 3.2 Crystallization.- 3.2.1 General principles.- 3.2.2 Melting point as a criterion of purity.- 3.2.3 Methods of crystallization.- 3.2.4 Choosing the crystallization solvent.- 3.2.5 Special topics.- 3.3 Melting point.- 3.3.1 General principles.- 3.3.2 Determination of melting point.- 3.3.3 Other methods.- 3.4 Distillation.- 3.4.1 General considerations.- 3.4.2 Simple distillation.- 3.4.3 Fractional distillation.- 3.4.4 Small-scale distillation.- 3.4.5 Molecular distillation.- 3.4.6 Steam distillation.- 3.4.7 Sublimation of solids.- 3.4.8 Appendices.- 4 Separation of organic mixtures by chromatography.- 4.1 Analytical methods.- 4.1.1 Thin-layer chromatography.- General description.- TLC plates and adsorbents.- Application of the sample.- Running (developing) the chromatogram.- Examining the chromatogram.- The use of TLC for qualitative analysis.- Choosing the developing solvent.- 4.1.2 Gas-liquid chromatography.- General description.- The instrument.- Injecting the sample.- Running the chromatogram.- Identification by GLC.- Quantitative analysis.- Recording GLC data.- Selection of the stationary phase and other operating parameters.- Setting up the instrument, some general points.- 4.1.3 High-performance liquid chromatography.- General description.- Equipment.- Operation of the equipment.- Qualitative and quantitative analysis.- Retention and resolution - basics.- Optimizing the separation.- Selection of the chromatographic mode.- Liquid - solid (adsorption) chromatography (LSC).- Liquid - liquid chromatography (LLC) on bonded phases.- 4.2 Preparative methods.- 4.2.1 Preparative thin-layer chromatography.- 4.2.2 Column chromatography.- General description.- Choosing the method.- Flash chromatography.- Dry-column flash chromatography.- Medium-pressure liquid chromatography.- Gravity-elution chromatography.- 4.3 Appendices.- 4.3.1 General principles of chromatographic separation.- 4.3.2 Control of adsorbent activity.- 4.3.3 Preparation of TLC plates.- Preparation of samples for spectroscopy.- 5.1 Infra-red.- 5.2 Nuclear magnetic resonance.- 5.3 Mass spectrometry.- 5.4 Ultraviolet.- Finding chemical information.- 6.1 Physical properties.- 6.2 Spectroscopic properties.- 6.3 Beilstein's Handbuch.- 6.4 Chemical Abstracts.

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