Preface to the Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Language, Learning, and Teaching Questions about Second Language Acquisition Learner Characteristics Linguistic Factors Learning Processes Age and Acquisition Instructional Variables Context Purpose Rejoicing in Our Defeats Language Learning and Teaching Schools of Thought in Second Language Acquisition Structural Linguistics and Behavioral Psychology Generative Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology Constructivism: A Multidisciplinary Approach Nineteen Centuries of Language Teaching Language Teaching in the Twentieth Century Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry Guidelines for Entry 1 PART I. AGE FACTORS Chapter 2 First Language Acquisition Theories of First Language Acquisition Behavioral Approaches Challenges to Behavioral Approaches The Nativist Approach Challenges to Nativist Approach Functional Approaches Issues in First Language Acquisition Competence and Performance Comprehension and Production Nature or Nurture? Universals Systematicity and Variability Language and Thought Imitation Practice and Frequency Input Discourse First Language Acquisition Insights Applied to Language Teaching Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 2 Chapter 3 Age and Acquisition Dispelling Myths Types of Comparison and Contrast The Critical Period Hypothesis Neurobiological Considerations Hemispheric Lateralization Biological Timetables Right-Hemispheric Participation Anthropological Evidence The Significance of Accent Cognitive Considerations Affective Considerations Linguistics Considerations Bilingualism Interference Between First and Second Languages Order of Acquisition Issues in First Language Acquisition Revisited Competence and Performance Comprehension and Production Nature or Nurture? Universals Systematicity and Variability Language and Thought Imitation Practice and Frequency Input Discourse Some "Age-and-Acquisition-Inspired" Language Teaching Methods Total Physical Response The Natural Approach, 79 Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 3 PART II. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Chapter 4 Human Learning Learning and Training Pavlov's Classical Behaviorism Skinner's Operant Conditioning Ausubel's Subsumption Theory Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Systematic Forgetting Rogers's Humanistic Psychology Types of Learning Transfer, Interference, and Overgeneralization Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Language Aptitude Intelligence and Language Learning Learning Theories in Action: Two Language Teaching Methods in Contrast The Audiolingual Method Community Language Learning Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 4 Chapter 5 Styles and Strategies Process, Style, and Strategy Learning Styles Field Independence Left- and Right-Brain Dominance Ambiguity Tolerance Reflectivity and Impulsivity Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Styles Autonomy, Awareness and Action Strategies Learning Strategies Communication Strategies Avoidance Strategies Compensatory Strategies Strategies-Based Instruction Identifying Learners' Styles and Strategies Incorporating SBI into the Language Classroom Stimulating Strategic Action Beyond the Classroom Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 5 Chapter 6 Personality Factors The Affective Domain Affective Factors in Second Language Acquisition Self-Esteem Attribution Theory and Self-Efficacy Willingness to Communicate Inhibition Risk-Taking Anxiety Empathy Extroversion Motivation Theories of Motivation Instrumental and Integrative Orientations Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation The Neurobiology of Affect Personality Types and Language Acquisition Measuring Affective Factors Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry PART III. SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS Chapter 7 Sociocultural Factors Culture Definitions and Theories Stereotypes or Generalizations? Attitudes Second Culture Acquisition Social Distance Teaching Intercultural Competance Language Policy and Politics World Englishes ESL and EFL Linguistic Imperialism and Language Rights Language Policy and the "English Only" Debate Language, Thought, and Culture Framing Our Conceptual Universe The Whorfian Hypothesis Culture in the Language Classroom Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 7 Chapter 8 Communicative Competence Defining Communicative Competence Language Functions Halliday's Seven Functions of Language Functional Approaches to Language Teaching Discourse Analysis Conversation Analysis Corpus Linguistics Contrastive Rhetoric Pragmatics Sociopragmatics and Pragmalinguistics Language and Gender Discourse Styles Nonverbal Communication Kinesics Eye Contact Proxemics Artifacts Kinesthetics Olfactory Dimensions CC in the Classroom: CLT and Task-Based Teaching Communicative Language Teaching Task-Based Instruction Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 8 PART IV. LINGUISTIC FACTORS Chapter 9 Cross-Linguistic Influential and Learner Language The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis From the CAH to CLI Markedness and Universal Grammar Learner Language Error Analysis Mistakes and Errors Errors in Error Analysis Identifying and Describing Errors Sources of Error Interlingual Transfer Intralingual Transfer Context of Learning Communication Strategies Stages of Learner Language Development Variation in Learner Language Fossilization or Stabilization? Errors in the Classroom: A Brief History Form-Focused Instruction Categories of Error Treatment Effectiveness of FFI Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 9 Chapter 10 Toward a Theory of Second Language Acquisition Building a Theory of SLA Domains and Generalizations Hypotheses and Claims Criteria for a Viable Theory Hot Topics in SLA Research Explicit and Implicit Learning Awareness Input and Output Frequency An Innatist Model: Krashen's Input Hypothesis Five Hypotheses Evaluations of the Five Hypotheses The Output Hypothesis Cognitive Models McLaughlin's Attention-Processing Model Implicit and Explicit Models A Social Constructivist Model: Long's Interactive Hypothesis Out on a Limb: A Light-Hearted "Horticultural" Theory of SLA From Theory to Practice A Reciprocal Relationship, Not a Dichotomy Suggestions for Theory Building The Believing Game and the Doubting Game The Art and Science of SLA The Role of Intuition Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion Suggested Readings Language Learning Experience: Final Journal Entry Bibliography Glossary Index
Dr. H. Douglas Brown, a professor in the MA-TESOL program at San Francisco State University, has written many articles, teacher training books, and textbooks on language pedagogy. A past president of TESOL and recipient of the James E. Alatis Award for Distinguished Service, Dr. Brown has lectured to English language teaching audiences around the world.