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The Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits


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Table of Contents


1. Normal Metals and the Transition to the Superconducting State.
Introduction. Independent Electrons in a Periodic Lattice. Energy Distribution and the Fermi Surface. Free-Electron Gas. Excitations: The Energy Gap in a Superconductor. Electronic Heat Capacity. The Phonon Spectrum. Scattering of Electrons by Phonons. Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity: The Superconducting State. Perfect Conductor vs. Superconductor: The Meissner Experiment.

2. Microscopic Theory of The Equilibrium Superconducting State and Single-Particle Tunneling.
Introduction. Electron Pairing. The Cooper Pair Model. Dielectric Functions and Scattering Amplitudes. Attractive Electron-Electron Interaction. Hamiltonian for the Superconducting Ground State. Superconducting Ground State. Gap Parameter and Condensation Energy at T = 0. Excitations from the Ground State. Occupation Statistics for Pairs and Excitations for T ...OE 0. Temperature Dependence of the Gap Parameter. Density of Excitation States. Tunneling Barriers. Tunneling Between Normal Metals. Tunneling Between a Normal Metal and a Superconductor. Ouasiparticle Tunneling Between Superconductors.

3. Electrodynamics of Superconductors in Weak Magnetic Fields.
Introduction. Current-Field Relations. Boson-Gas Model: London Equations. Gauge Transformation. Gauge Selection for Simply Connected Superconductors: The London Gauge. dc Electrodynamic Solutions for Superconductors Having Simple Shapes: The Meissner Effect and Penetration Depth. Two-Dimensional Transition Between a Normal Conductor and a Superconductor. Isolated Current-Carrying Thin Strip; Electrostatic Analogy. Inductance of Thin Film Lines. Ouantization of Magnetic Flux in a Superconducting Ring. Nonlocal Field-Current Relation: Pippard Coherence Length. Penetration Depths for Pure and Impure Materials at T = 0. Temperature Dependences of Carrier Densities and Penetration Depths; The Two-Fluid Model. Complex Conductivity. Electromagnetic Fields in Conducting Media. Superconducting Transmission Lines. Superconducting Passive Microwave Components.

4. Josephson Junctions.
Introduction. Pair Tunneling: The Josephson Relations. Gauge Invariance: Effect of a Magnetic Field. Wave Equation for a Josephson Tunnel Junction. Dependence of Maximum Zero-Voltage Current on Magnetic Field. Self-Field Effects: Dependence of Ic on Shape and Size of Junction. Resonances in Josephson Junctions. Fiske Modes. Conducting-Barrier Josephson Junctions. Circuit Models of Josephson Junctions. Static I-V Characteristics with a dc Source. Analogs of Small-Area Josephson Junctions. RF Effects in Josephson Junctions. Fluctuations (Noise) in Josephson Junctions.

5. Electronics Applications.
Introduction. Josephson Mixing. Quasiparticle Mixing. Bolometers. Parametric Amplifier. RF Signal Generation. Oscillators Based on Flux Dynamics in Long Junctions. Josephson Volt Standard. One-Junction SQUIDS. Multijunction Interferometers (SQUIDs). dc SQUID Magnetometers. RF SQUID Magnetometers. Components for Digital Circuits. Voltage-State Logic. Single Flux Quantum Devices. Rapid Single Flux Quantum Logic. Digital Interface Circuits. Memories in Josephson and Hybrid Technology.

6. Fundamental Thermodynamic and Magnetic Considerations.
Introduction. Fundamental Concepts in Statistical Thermodynamics. Interacting Systems. Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies. Magnetization. Demagnetization Factors. Energy in Magnetic Fields. Thermodynamic Relations for Magnetic Systems. Phase Transitions. The Superconducting-Normal Phase Transformation.

7. Spatially Dependent Behavior in Superconductors: The Ginzburg-Landau Equations and Departures from the Eissner State.
Introduction. Ginzburg-Landau Free-Energy Functional. Ginzburg-Landau Differential Equations. Examples of Solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau Equations; The Ginzburg-Landau Parameters. Gor'kov's Microscopic Justification for the Ginzburg Landau Theory. Surface Energy at the Boundary Between Normal and Superconducting Phases in a Homogeneous Medium. Intrinsic Magnetic Behavior of Superconductors. Geometrical Effects: The Intermediate State. Proximity Effects: Contiguous Normal and Superconductive Materials.

8. Type II Superconductivity: Theory and Technology.
Introduction. Mixed State in Type II Superconductors: the Vortex Lattice. Londel Model of the Mixed State. Behavior Near Hc, Magnetic Flux Configuration in the Mixed State: the Vortex Lattice. Behavior Near Hc2 and Surface Conductivity in LTS Materials. Flux Penetration in Thin LTS Films: Critical Fields. Vortex Motion and Flux-Flow Resistance. Thermally Active Flux Motion: Flux Creep and Flux Jumps. The Critical-State Model for Hard Superconductors. The Surface Barrier to Flux Entry in LTS Materials. Stabilization of Superconducting Cables by the Use of Composite Conductors. AC Losses at Power Frequencies.

Appendix A: Elements of Electron Tunneling.

Appendix B: Determination of Materials from Experimental Data.

Appendix C: Computer-Aided-Design Tools.

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