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Process Plants


Product Description
Product Details

Table of Contents


Process Plant Turnarounds

Activities during a Turnaround

Maintenance Philosophy

Economics of Maintenance Management

Types of Maintenance Activities

Types of Shutdown

Shutdown of Key Refinery Units Affecting Product Pattern

Strategic Issues

Turnaround Evaluation

Initiating the Turnaround


Developing a Shutdown Overview

Strategic Plan

Establish Shutdown Charter


Scope Statement

Appoint Shutdown Team

Major Turnaround Milestones

What Are the Shutdown/Turnaround Performance Criteria?


Kickoff Meetings

Job of Planning Team

Planning Step One: Developing the Shutdown Work List

Planning Step Two: Identify Task Relationships

Planning Step Three: Manpower Strategic Planning

Planning Step Four: Estimate Work Packages

Planning Step Five: Calculate an Initial Schedule

Planning Step Six: Assign and Level Resources

Planning Step Seven: Develop Procurement Plan

Planning Step Eight: Develop Quality Plan

Planning Step Nine: Develop Communications Plan

Planning Step Ten: Develop Risk Plan


Information Requirements for Planning

Planning Is Not a One-Time Event!


What Is an Estimate?

Methods for Estimating Activity Duration

What Is the Cost Baseline?

Shutdown Contract Management

What Is a Contract?

Scope of a Contract

Parties to a Contract



Selection of Contractor Work Packages

Contract Types

Selection of Contractor

Tender Evaluation Practices

Management of Obviously Low Bids


Terms of Payment


Shutdown Organization

What Is Involved in Effective Shutdown Organization?

Turnaround Steering Committee

Determination of the Skills Needed

Shutdown Manager's Skill Requirement


Executing the Shutdown

The Kickoff Meeting


Job Status Update

Daily Schedule

Reporting Status

Tracking Shutdown Costs

Preshutdown Job

Long-Delivery Items



Prefabricated Work

Accommodation and Facilities

Crowd Control

Contractor's Insurance Certificates

Safety Training

Employing Barricades

Emergency Showers and Eyebaths

Special Machines

Vendors Representatives

Inspection of Equipment

Traditional Inspection Practice: Background

Inspection of Equipment



Heat Exchangers

Demister Pad


Pressure Safety Valves

Inspection during Fabrication of New Piping

External Corrosion

Approaches for Other Equipment Types

Shutdown Safety

Hazardous Chemicals and Catalysts

Common Hazards

Safety Planning

Safety Preplanning

Evaluation and Selection of Contractors and Subcontractors

Emergency Warning System and Procedures

Communication Package

Methods of Communicating

Conducting Meetings

Communication for Success

Shutdown Control

What Are You Actually Controlling?

What Are the Baselines?

Measuring Progress

Quality Plan

Shutdown Quality

Deliverable Quality

Planning Quality

Risk in Shutdown

Why Risk Analysis Is Necessary

What Is Risk Management?

What Are the Basic Steps in Risk Management?

What Is Risk Identification?

What Is Risk Quantification?

What Are Risk Response Strategies?

Why Do We Have Two Separate Reserves to Take Care of the Risks?

Using a Risk Profile

Historical Records

Joint Integrity

Managing Integrity

Major Causes of Joint Leakage

Corrective Action for Guideline and Responsibility Deficiencies

Joint Assembly Procedure



Systematic Commissioning Planning

Mechanical Integrity

What to Do in Checklisting


Process Commissioning

Commissioning and Start-Up Period

Minimum Facilities before Start-Up

Pre-Start-Up Safety Review (PSSR)

Customized Testing and Acceptance Methodologies

Sequence of Commissioning

Equipment Operating Procedures

Postshutdown Review

Contract Closure

Administrative Closure

Postevaluation Report

Safety/Environmental Performance and Procedures

Shutdown File

Final Report

Lesson Learned Session



Performance Measure; Success

Lean Shutdowns: Cut Waste Wisely from Your Outages



About the Author

Dr. Trinath Sahoo currently serves as senior manager at Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) and has 20 years of experience in the technical and management fields. His key areas of expertise include project engineering design and implementation, process plant maintenance, and troubleshooting and analysis of rotating equipment. Dr. Sahoo has a thorough knowledge of pump and compressor operation and maintenance; shutdown management, maintenance, and reliability; project and asset management; and advanced maintenance strategies. He has worked as a plant turnaround engineer for various projects and companies and has published papers in various international magazines and conferences.


"This book ought to be of value to the professional engineer new to the challenges of a plant turnaround. Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance are major issues for any chemical plant, refinery or installation. The loss of production and consequently loss of revenue needs to be managed as efficiently and as effectively as possible. Correct planning and execution of a turnaround requires considerable effort to ensure efficient return to full operating capacity. This book aims to highlight the main factors that must be taken into consideration from the planning stage through to execution and post shutdown reviews."
--Professor Carl J Schaschke, University of Strathclyde, UK

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