List of FiguresList of TablesPrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorChapter 1: The E-Interview Research Framework Interview Research: A Window Into the Lived Experience Online Interview Research Online Interviews and Multimethod Research A Conceptual Framework for E-Interview Research Aligning Purpose and Design Choosing Online Data Collection Method for the Study Taking a Position as a Researcher Determining E-Interview or Observation Style(s) Selecting ICT and Milieu Using Visual Research in Online Interviews and Observations Handling Sampling and Recruiting Addressing Ethical Issues Collecting the Data Closing ThoughtsChapter 2: Aligning Purpose and Design Research: New Knowledge and Understandings Understanding the "Research Interview" What Is an In-Depth Research Interview? Interviews in an Interview Society Research Epistemologies, Methodologies, and Methods Theories and Research Design Epistemologies Influence Design Choices Mixed Methods, Multimethods, and Mixed Epistemologies Methodologies and Methods: Key Principles and Distinctions Interviews and Observations in Qualitative and Mixed-Methods Studies Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Creating a Coherent Design Aligning Purpose and Design Across Qualitative Methodologies Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 3: Choosing Online Data Collection Method and Taking a Position as a Researcher Choosing to Collect Data with ICTs Based on Medium, Setting, or Phenomenon Taking a Position as a Researcher Insider (Emic) or Outsider (Etic) E-Research Positions Rethinking Research Metaphors: Travelers, Gardeners, or Miners? Positions, Power, and Symmetry in Interviews Reflexivity and the Researcher's Position Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Choosing E-Interviews and Positions Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 4: Determining E-Interview or Observation Styles Structure and the Online Interview Typology of E-Interview Structures Structured Interviews Semistructured Interviews Unstructured Interviews Life Story or Oral History Interviews Postmodern Interviews Co-Constructed Narratives Creative Interviews Structure and Technology Structured Interviews Semistructured Interviews Unstructured Interviews Motivations for Online Interviews and the Typology of E-Interview Structures The Researcher's Position and the Typology of E-Interview Structures Interviews in Qualitative, Mixed-Methods, and Multimethod Studies Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Determining Styles for Online Interviews Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 5: Selecting Information and Communication Technologies and Research Setting Milieu Technology Equals Change Forces for Change The Internet: The Medium Warms Technology Convergence: "Technologies Are Crashing Together" Interactivity and Collaboration Communication Richness Nonverbal Communications and Online Interviews Synchronous, Near-Synchronous, and Asynchronous Communication Tools and Features for Online Interview Research Aligning Features With Research Purposes Choosing, Finding, or Creating a Conducive Meeting Space Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Selecting ICTs and Milieu Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 6: Visual Research and the Online Qualitative Interview Seeing the Interview: Visual Questions, Visual Answers Multimodal Communication in a Multilingual World Visual Literacy and Spatial Intelligence Typology of Online Visual Interview Methods Visual Methods in Online Interviews Text-Based Interviews Video Conference, Video Call, or Video Chat Multichannel Web Conference Meeting Spaces Immersive Virtual Environments Using Visual Methods to Enrich Online Interview Data Issues in Online Visual Research Perceptual Issues Ethical Issues Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook Stories of Online Inquiry Structured Visual Online Interviews Semistructured and Unstructured Visual Online Interviews Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 7: Handling Sampling and Recruiting: Selecting Participants for Online Interviews A Critical Decision: Whom to Interview? Sampling in Qualitative Research Types of Sampling Size of Sample Sample Frames Sampling and Recruiting for Online Interview Research Design Decisions Influence Sampling and Recruiting Sampling Approaches Appropriate for Online Interview Research Communicating With Potential Participants Ensuring That Participants Are Credible Participants Are Nominated by Trustworthy Third Party Participants Are Pulled From Existing Sample Frames Ensuring Research Participants That Researchers Are Credible Getting Out the Recruitment Message Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Handling Sampling and Recruiting Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 8: Addressing Ethical Issues in Online Interview Research Ethical Research Design and Online Interviews Ethical Research Design Fundamentals Informed Consent Informed Consent and Online Research Informed Consent in Online Interview Research Informed Consent in Online Observation Research Identity and Privacy Withdrawal From the Online Study Protection of Data Ethical Frameworks The Deontological Approach The Consequentialist or Utilitarian Approach The Virtue Ethics Approach Toward an Understanding of Internet Research Ethics Research Design, Ethics, and Review Boards Risk/Benefit Analysis Review Issues for Informed Consent Review Issues for Privacy and Confidentiality Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Addressing Ethical Issues Stories of Online Inquiry: Three Researchers-Ethical or Not? Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 9: Preparing for an Online Interview Planning to Interview Preparing the Questions Communications Technologies and Online Interview Preparation Considerations for ICT Selection Learning the ICT Interview Preparation by ICT Type Preparing for Any Online Interview Preparing for a Text-Based Interview Synchronicity and Synchronous/Near Synchronous Text-Based Interviews Preparing for an Asynchronous Text-Based Interview Preparing for a Video Interview Preparing to Interview in a Web Conferencing Meeting Space Preparing to Interview in an Immersive Virtual Environment Getting Ready to Interview Defining Roles Epoche, Self-Reflection, and Preparing to Listen Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 10: Conducting the Online Interview Interviewer and the Interview Conducting a Research Interview Opening the Interview Questioning and Guiding Closing the Interview Post-Interview Follow-Up Conducting a Research Interview Using Synchronous Technologies Text-Based Interview Video Conference Interview Interviews in Multichannel Web Conferencing Meeting Spaces Interviews in Immersive Virtual Environments Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook The E-Interview Research Framework: Conducting the Study Stories of Online Inquiry Key Concepts Discussions and Assignments On the WebChapter 11: Contributing Quality E-Research to the Literature Using the E-Interview Research Framework to Assess Design and Research Quality Aligning Purpose and Design Coherent but Flexible Design Choosing Online Data Collection Method for the Study Taking a Position as a Researcher Insider-Outsider Perspectives and Interpretations Power Dynamics Reflexivity Determining E-Interview or Observation Style(s) Selecting ICT and Milieu Handling Sampling and Recruiting Addressing Ethical Issues Conducting the Interview Closing Thoughts Researcher's Notebook Stories of Online Inquiry Discussions and AssignmentsChapter 12: Online Communications and Online Interviews Trends and Influences Online Communications and Online Interviews Anywhere, Anytime Communication Online Collaboration and Social Literacies Disintermediation and Apomediation Privacy in Online Milieus ICT Trends and Implications for Researchers Closing Thoughts and Recommendations for Further Research Discussions and AssignmentsAppendix: Qualitative Data AnalysisGlossary of TermsReferencesIndex
Janet Salmons is an independent researcher, writer and consultant through her company,Vision2Lead, Inc. Dr. Salmons wrote Doing Qualitative Research Online, Qualitative Online interviews, Online Interviews in Real Time (2010) and edited the Cases in Online Interview Research (2012) for SAGE Publications, as well as numerous articles and book chapters. Dr. Salmons has extensive experience teaching, mentoring, and facilitating online. She previously served on the graduate faculty of the Capella University School of Business, and was honored with the Harold Abel Distinguished Faculty Award for 2011-2012 and the Steven Shank Recognition for Teaching in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Dr. Salmons received a B.S. in Adult and Community Education from Cornell University; an M.A. in Social Policy Studies from Empire State College, a distance-learning institution in the SUNY system; and a Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Studies (meshing educational, technology, and leadership studies) at the Union Institute and University. She lives and works in Boulder, Colorado.
I found the book's format user-friendly. Each element of the framework has a dedicated chapter and, at the end of each chapter, there is a checklist of questions to consider when putting the element into practice... I have developed my face-to-face interviewing skills through experience and reflection, and I am looking to develop my online interviewing skills in the same way. Salmons offers a constructive and thoughtful way to do so. -- Celia Netana, research assistant, University of South Wales I found the practical tips extremely helpful, and I see that not only students or new researchers, but also more experienced scholars, could benefit from it. The author offers recommendations that cover all stages of the research process described in the book, which help one to execute a study. -- Antonina Bauman, Hawai'i Pacific University Janet Salmons has remarkably managed to produce a comprehensive guidance manual for new researchers in today's digital age, which will also appeal to, and be useful for, experienced researchers. She takes qualitative research thoroughly and imaginatively forward into the totally new world where information technology must feature prominently in our researching. In so doing, she builds upon established traditions and practices, and extends and enhances them to exploit the resources of the present day. She has been aided in this by a publisher who has produced an intensely readable book, in which the creative use of splendidly explanatory diagrams, fonts, colours, boxes, headings, structuring, and signposting makes it generally delightfully easy for the reader to assimilate and navigate. -- John Cowan, Doctoral Supervisor, The Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland "The text provides excellent coverage of up-to-date alternatives to the face-to-face interview. . . . It provides a framework for learning and thinking about online methods, and it provides tools for designing and conducting online interviews. It is honest and practical. It sits on the top of the new directions in research in the ever growing digital arena." -- Sherri Oden, Oakland University "This book is ahead of its time. It tackles the complicated matter of merging technology with research in a rather lucid manner." -- David Lee Carlson, Arizona State University "It provides a one-stop shop for conducting interviews." -- Debra Borie-Holtz, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey "[This is] a very thoughtful and engaged text on very important 21st century issues. Concepts, even very difficult ones, are explained clearly and gracefully." -- Laura J. Hatcher, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale "The new edition is timely, and covers relevant areas of using available online media to collect qualitative interviews. Particularly useful as a text to help those who want to do research on global/international participants without being limited by availability of funding for travelling abroad." -- Faith Wambura Ngunjiri, Eastern University "[This book] presents a clear, research-based conceptual framework to understand both the process of qualitative data collection using interviews, as well as ethical and practical considerations associated with design and implementation. This is a most comprehensive book addressing the concepts and protocol of qualitative research methods with particular consideration for computer-mediated thinking, connecting, interviewing, and data collection and analysis. . . . This text is more than a "how-to" volume on qualitative interviewing. This book is rich with the organizational structure of the process of qualitative methodology that enhances the methods!" -- Sally R. Beisser, Drake University "The text is an excellent example for providing effective and efficient instruction. Learners can easily navigate the various components, and it can be used for self-study. . . . Marvelous depth of coverage on the online interview process. It is at the leading edge of thinking in the field of e-research." -- Anne-Marie Armstrong, Colorado Technical University