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Reading the Twentieth Century


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Prologue: Dawning of the Twentieth Century-Acquisition of an Empire 1. Peace Is established; President McKinley Tries to Reassure the Filipinos: "Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation of President William McKinley (1898) 2. Aguinaldo Protests the U.S. Claim of Sovereignty: "Aguinaldo's Manifesto Protesting the United States' Claim of Sovereignty Over the Philippines" (1899) 3. Aguinaldo Surrenders: "Aguinaldo's Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States" (1901) 4. The War Ends: "President Theodore Roosevelt's Proclamation Formally Ending the Philippine 'Insurrection' and Granting of Pardon and Amnesty" (1902) 5. Rudyard Kipling Checks In: Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden" (1899) 6. McKinley Explains His Dilemma: President William McKinley, Speech to the Methodist Episcopal Church (1903) 7. Senator Lodge Provides Justification for Taking the Philippines: Henry Cabot Lodge, Speech to the Senate (1900) 8. William Jennings Bryan Rebuts and Provides Another Point of View: William Jennings Bryan, Acceptance Speech to the Democratic National Convention (1900) 9. African American Soldiers Report from the Philippines: Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., "Smoked Yankees" and the Struggle for Empire: Letters from Negro Soldiers (1898-1902) Chapter 1: War and Peace Part A: World War I-Neutrality, Propaganda and Civil Liberties 1. Wilson Declares Neutrality: President Woodrow Wilson, Message to Congress (1914) 2. Wilson's War Message: President Woodrow Wilson, Address to Congress (1917) 3. Espionage Act (1917) 4. Sedition Act (1918) 5. The Committee on Public Information: George Creel, Extracts from How We Advertised America (1920) 6. The Creel Committee is Criticized: "Uncle Sam's Press-Agent," The Literary Digest (1917) 7. Charges of Treason are Questioned: "Treason' on the Street Corners," The Nation (1917) 8. The Nation Protests Arrests: "Civil Liberty Dead," The Nation (1918) 9. Palmer's Case Against the Reds: A. Mitchell Palmer, "The Case Against the 'Reds'" (1920) Part B: Kellogg-Briand Pact-A Search for Peace 1. The Text of the Treaty: President Herbert Hoover, Announcement of the Ratification of the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1929) 2. The Origin of the Treaty: Edwin Borchard, Speech to the Williamstown Institute of Politics (1928) 3. Questions Are Raised: Frank B. Kellogg, Testimony to the Senate (1928) 4. The Issue of Self-Defense: George W. Wickersham, "Making Real the Pact of Paris," The Century Magazine (1929) 5. Opposition to the Pact Appears: Edwin Borchard, "The Multilateral Pact for the 'Renunciation of War'," Speech to the Williamstown Institute of Politics (1928) 6. The Pact Prevails: United States Department of State Memos (1929) 7. Kellogg Still Has Hopes for the Treaty: Frank B. Kellogg, Speech over the CBS Radio Network (1935) Chapter 2: Affluence, Anxiety, and Hard Times Part A: Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan 1. The Klan's Constitution (1925) 2. The Klan in Politics and Scandal: Alva W. Taylor, "What the Klan Did in Indiana" (1927) 3. The Klan Gets New Leadership: Hiram W. Evans, "The Klan's Fight for Americanism" (1926) 4. A Popular Writer Weighs in: Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s (1931) 5. The New Republic Explains Some of the Origin of the Klan: "The K.K.K.," The New Republic (1921) 6. The African American Press Speaks: Comment from The Union (1922) 7. What was Wrong with the Klan?: Article in The Nation (1924) 8. The Klan and Politics: "Casting Out the Klan," The Independent (1924) Part B: Bonus March 1. From the Military Point of View: General Lucian K. Truscott, Jr., The Twilight of the U.S. Cavalry: Life in the Old Army, 1917-1942 2. Hoover Responds to the Marchers: President Hoover's Statements (1932-1933) 3. An Eye Witness Account: Bera Roberts (1932) 4. President Hoover tells his side of the story: The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover. The Great Depression, 1929-1941 5. A Democrat Recalls the Bonus March: Rexford G. Tugwell, "Roosevelt and the Bonus Marchers of 1932" Chapter 3: The New Deal Part A: Security for the Elderly 1. Huey Long Supports Pensions: Senator Long, Speeches to the Senate (1934-1935) 2. EPIC Includes Pensions: Upton Sinclair, Excerpts from Final EPIC: The Final Statement of the Plan 3. The Plan in Brief: The Townsend Plan (1934) 4. The Plan Analyzed: Justification and Explanation of the Townsend Plan (1934) 5. Townsend Defends Himself: Excerpts from Townsend's Congressional Testimony (1935) 6. Secretary Perkins Explains: National Radio Address "Social Insurance for U.S." (1935) 7. How the Committee Operated: Thomas H. Eliot, Recollections of the New Deal: When the People Mattered (1992) 8. The Press Comments: Abraham Epstein, "Social Security Under the New Deal" (1935) Part B: Isolation and Antiwar Sentiment 1. The Nye Report: Report of the Senate Munitions Committee (1936) 2. Defense of the Nye Committee: "The Attack on the Nye Committee," The Christian Century (1936) 3. Nye Indicts International Bankers: "Conclusions of the Nye Committee" (1936) 4. Neutrality Act of 1937 5. Senator Nye Continues His Struggle: Speech to the Senate (1941) 6. National Committee for the Student Congress Against War: "FIGHT WAR!" (1932) 7. The American Youth Congress: "The Declaration of the Rights of American Youth" (1936) 8. The Veterans of Future Wars Manifesto: Lewis J. Gorin, Jr., Founder of the VFW (1936) 9. The Amateur Poets Speak Out: Poems to President Hoover and Roosevelt (1937-1940) Chapter 4: World War II Part A: Rosie the Riveter 1. Katie's Story: From the Rosie the Riveter Website 2. Irene's Story: From the Rosie the Riveter Website 3. Katherine Worked in a Factory: Interview with Katherine O'Grady 4. Some Had Family Responsibilities: Interview with Mary Gardner 5. Some Were Not Allowed to Serve in the Military: Interview with Eileen Hughes 6. Some Faced Discrimination in the Military: Interview with Genevieve Chasm Part B: Americans on the Battlefront 1. Military training: Private Morton D. Elevitch, Letter to His Mother 2. Fighting in Italy: Private Paul Curtis, Letter to His Brother (1944) 3. Death in the Pacific: Lieutenant Tommie Kennedy, Letter to His Parents (1945) 4. An American Jew Helps Liberate Dachau: Lieutenant Fritz Schnaittacher, Letter to His Wife (1945) 5. Ernie Pyle's Report from the Front: "The Death of Captain Waskow" (1944) 6. Pyle from Africa: "The God-Damned Infantry" (1943) 7. Pyle's Last Column (1945) 8. Rooney From Germany: Andy Rooney, "How it Feels to Bomb Germany . . ." (1943) 9. Rooney Remembers: Michelle Ferrari, Reporting America at War: An Oral History (2003) Chapter 5: The Cold War Part A: The Cold War Begins 1. Kennan's "Long Telegram": George Kennan, Excerpts from Telegraphic Message from Moscow (1946) 2. An "Iron Curtain" Falls: Winston Churchill, Excerpt of Speech at Westminster College in Missouri (1946) 3. Stalin Replies: Josef Stalin, Interview with Pravda (1946) 4. Acheson Remembers: Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (1969) 5. The Truman Doctrine: Excerpt from President Truman's Speech to Congress (1947) 6. The Marshall Plan: Excerpt from Secretary of State George Marshall's Speech to Congress (1947) 7. Truman Speaks: Excerpt from President's Truman's Speech in San Francisco (1950) Part B: Sputnik-The Cold War in Action 1. Soviets Announce Satellite: Press Release in Pravda (1957) 2. Assorted Reactions: American Reactions to the Launching of Sputnik 3. Eisenhower Reacts: The President's News Conference (1957) 4. Eisenhower' Official Statement (1957) 5. The Secretary of State Tries to Quiet Fears: John Foster Dulles, "Draft Statements on the Soviet Satellite" (1957) 6. Soviet Beginnings of Satellites: Mikhail K. Tikhonravov, Report Proposing a Soviet Space Program (1954) 7. Massachusetts Responds: Owen B. Kiernan, "Sputnik Shot Still Reverberates Here" (1958) 8. Eisenhower Meets with Advisors: General A. J. Goodpaster, Summary of Meeting (1957) 9. How Did Americans Really React?: Donald N. Michael, Remarks on Public Reaction (1957) 10. Eisenhower Proposes Legislation: Special Message to Congress (1958) Chapter 6: The Civil Rights Movement Part A: Civil Rights in the Post-War Era 1. Truman Takes Action and Orders Desegregation of the Armed Services: Executive Order (1948) 2. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 3. Violence in Little Rock: President Eisenhower's Speech to the American Public (1957) 4. Protest in Montgomery: Martin Luther King, Jr., Excerpt of Speech to the Montgomery Improvement Association (1955) 5. John Kennedy Weighs in: Speech to the American People (1963) 6. "I Have a Dream" (1963) 7. President Johnson Steps In: State of the Union Address (1964) Part B: Racial Violence 1. Urban Violence Begins-the Watts Riot: Excerpt from the Governor's Commission Report (1965) 2. Hutchinson Remembers: Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Interview with the Huffington Post 3. Mosley Remembers: Walter Mosley, Interview with Powell's Bookstore in Portland, Oregon 4. Kerner Commission Report (1968) Chapter 7: A New Society Part A: The New Feminism 1. Declaration of American Women: Wisconsin Women's Network, Statement at the National Women's Conference Houston (1977) 2. Friedan Defines the "Problem": Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963) 3. A New Women's Magazine: Excerpt from the First Regular Issue of MS (1972) 4. The Equal Rights Amendment (1972) 5. A Catholic Magazine Speaks Out: Mary Burke, "The Church and the Equal Rights Amendment" (1975) 6. Supporters Appeal to Women: James M. Wall, "New Wisdom From Rosie the Riveter" (1981) 7. Attempt to Revive the Amendment: James M. Wall, "The Real Issue for Women is Power" (1982) 8. Opponents Believe the Amendment will be Approved: "Equal Rights for Women" (1972) 9. Opponents Believe the Courts Are Implementing the Amendment: "What Do Women Want?" (1980) 10. Schlafly Explains Her Role: Interview with Fran Eaton (2004) Part B: The Rise of the Religious Right 1. Falwell Makes His Case: The Fundamentalist Phenomenon (1981) 2. Another Leader of the Religious Right Makes His Case: Charles W. Colson, "The Lures and Limits of Political Power" (1986) 3. Another Point of View from the Right: Paul Weyrich, Christianity Today (1999) 4. Lessons Can be Learned from the Moral Majority: Robert McAfee Brown, "The Need for a Moral Minority" (1982) 5. A Humanist Reacts to Weyrich: Carleton Coon, "The New Moral Majority" (1999) 6. A Foreign View: Iwan Russell-Jones, "Give Me That Prime Time Religion" (1984) Chapter 8: American Society in Flux Part A: Counterculture and Protest 1. The Summer of Love: Excerpt from the Memoir of Allen Cohen (1995) 2. Growing Up Hippie: Sarah Beach, "Curse of the Hippie Parents" (2001) 3. Students Organize: Port Huron Statement of the Students for a Democratic Society (1962) 4. Timothy Leary Testifies: Chicago Seven Trial (1969-1970) 5. A Protester Remembers: Interview with Rennie Davis (2009) Part B: Atrocities in Vietnam 1. Ridenhour's Letter: Letter from Mr. Ronald Ridenhour to the Secretary of Defense (1969) 2. Hugh Thompson's Story: Testimony to the Peers Commission (1969) 3. The Viet Cong Tell Their Story: "The Americans Devils Devulge [sic] the Truth" 4. The Peers Report (1970) 5. Calley Testifies (1971) Chapter 9: Continuing Crises Part A.: Cuban Missile Crisis-How Close to War? 1. Khrushchev Reacts to American Surveillance: Foy Kohler, Report to the Department of State (1962) 2. Kennedy Announces Quarantine: Excerpt from Speech (1962) 3. Khrushchev Writes Kennedy (1962) 4. Robert Kennedy Reports: Excerpt of Report to President Kennedy (1962) 5. Another Exchange of Letters Between Khrushchev and Kennedy (1962) 6. America and the Soviet Union Exchange Insults at the United Nations (1962) 7. The Press Gets Involved: John Scali, Memorandum to the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (1962) 8. Khrushchev Makes Two Proposals (1962) 9. Khrushchev Ends the Crisis (1962) Part B: Watergate and the Imperial Presidency 1. Sirica Comments on the Break-in: To Set the Record Straight: The Break-in, the Tapes, and the Conspirators, the Pardon (1979) 2. Nixon Speaks on the Watergate Issue: Address to the Nation (1973) 3. Nixon's Troubles Deepen; Sirica Named Man of the Year (1973-1974) 4. Barbara Jordan's Position: Speech during the Impeachment Hearings of Richard Nixon (1974) 5. Judiciary Committee Approves Impeachment Articles (1974) 6. The "Smoking Gun" Tape (1972) 7. Nixon Resigns (1974) 8. President Ford Pardons Nixon (1974) Chapter 10: High Tech Part A: Personal Computers 1. The Emergence of Personal Computers: Christopher Roper, "Microcomputers and the Left" (1983) 2. Dan Bricklin, Inventor: VisiCalc Spreadsheets (1978) 3. Wozniak Speaks: Interview with the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania (2008) 4. The Future of Computers: Interview with Dr. Gary A. Kildall, in Susan M. Lammers, Programmers at Work (1986) 5. The Evolution of Computers: Interview with John Page, in Susan M. Lammers, Programmers at Work (1986) 6. The Software King: Bill Gates, The Road Ahead (1996) Part B: News All the Time: The 24-hour News Cycle 1. How CNN Began: Reese Schonfeld, The Unauthorized Story of the Founding of CNN (2001) 2. "Terrible Ted": Joseph B. Cumming, Jr. "Ted Turner: 'Captain Outrageous'" (1980) 3. Turner Remembers: Ted Turner, "My Beef with Big Media" (2004) 4. CNN Succeeds: Jay Rosen, "The Whole World Is Watching CNN" (1991) 5. CNN Gets Praise: Mary Jo Melone, "Live From Iraq: CNN Filters War's Grim Reality" (2003) 6. Coverage Expands: Peter Johnson, "For Cable News, Iraq War is a Clear Victory" (2003) 7. Why Fox Won: Neil Hickey, "In a Desperate Race for Ratings, the Public Falls Behind" (2003) 8. Fox Evaluated: "In Depth: FOX News Has Won the Perception War (For Now)" (2005) Chapter 11: The Culmination of the Cold War Part A: Iran Contra 1. The Boland Amendment (1984) 2. Reagan Admits to the Arms Deal: Announcement of the Review of the National Security Council's Role in the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy (1986) 3. The Reagan Administration Responds: "Iran, Contra Aid Link Ousts 2 Advisers: Kept in Dark, Reagan Says, but Still OKs Policy" (1986) 4. Reagan Charges the Review Board: Remarks at a Meeting With the President's Special Review Board for the National Security Council (1986) 5. Weinberger's Memo: Caspar Weinberger, Memorandum for the Record, "Meeting on November 10, 1986, with the President, et al." (1986) 6. The Independent Counsel Reports: Lawrence E. Walsh, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters (1993) 7. Bush Pardons the Participants: Presidential Pardon of Caspar Weinberger, et al. (1992) 8. The Independent Counsel Responds: Lawrence Walsh, Response to Presidential Pardon (1992) Part B: End of Cold War 1. Fall of the Berlin Wall: Douglas Hamilton, "Fall of the Berlin Wall: A Week That Changed the World" (1989) 2. Bush Reacts: Remarks With Reporters on the Relaxation of East German Border Controls (1989) 3. Gorbachev Faces Parliament: "Gorbachev, Yeltsin in Public" (1991) 4. Gorbachev Resigns (1991) 5. America's Place in the New World: James McCartney, "America's Place in a New Kind of World" (1991) Postscript: Crises at Century's End: Clinton Impeachment and the 9/11 Attacks Part A: The Impeachment of President Clinton 1. The Starr Report (1998) 2. Clinton Speaks to the Nation (1998) 3. Impeachment Resolutions (1998) 4. Hyde Testimony in the Senate (1999) Part B: The 9/11 Attacks 1. The Attack: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (2004) 2. Bush's Comments from Florida (2001) 3. President Bush Addresses the Nation (2001) 4. The Nation Urges Caution: "A Great Wound" (2001) 5. Did the Government Have Advance Knowledge?: Alexander Cockburn, "Faceless Cowards" (2001) 6. "At War" Says the National Review (2001) 7. The Attacks Were War, Not Crimes: Daniel Pipes (2001) 8. The Commission Reports: Excerpt of the Executive Summary (2004)

About the Author

Donald W. Whisenhunt is emeritus professor of history at Western Washington University, and the editor of The Human Tradition in America between the Wars, 1920-1945.


Reading the Twentieth Century will be a valuable asset in any course on twentieth-century America. Looking at the century as a whole and identifying its common themes, Donald Whisenhunt has selected an extensive collection of thought-provoking primary documents. He provides brief, but highly effective, introductory notes for each and questions that will stimulate student thought and classroom discussion. There is plenty of substance in the documents to engage students in upper level and graduate courses. -- William H. Mulligan Jr., Murray State University
This volume captures the width and breadth of the `American Century.' With this great collection in hand students will read original documents, selected with balance and integrity, highlighting important developments in the social conditions and lifestyles we all share in today. -- Richard R. E. Kania, Jacksonville State University of Alabama
The meticulously selected documents presented here not only provide a rich, inclusive history of the great 'American Century' but also offer pleasant surprises, disturbing actions, and fresh insights. Together the documents represent a splendid cross-section of the 20th century American experience. -- Paul H. Carlson, Texas Tech University

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