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Recent Advances in QSAR Studies

Since the inception of this volume, the world's nancial climate has radically changed. Theemphasishasshiftedfromboomingeconomiesandeconomicgrowth totherealityofrecessionanddiminishingoutlook. Witheconomicdownturncomes opportunity,inallareasofchemistryfromresearchanddevelopmentthroughto productregistrationandriskassessment,replacementsarebeingsoughtforcostly time-consumingprocesses. Leadingamongstthereplacementsaremodelswithtrue predictivecapability. Ofthesecomputationalmodelsarepreferred. This volume addresses a broad need within various areas of the "chemical industries", from pharmaceuticals and pesticides to personal products to provide computationalmethodstopredicttheeffects,activitiesandpropertiesofmolecules. Itaddressestheuseofmodelstodesignnewmoleculesandassesstheirfateand effectsbothtotheenvironmentandtohumanhealth. Thereisanemphasisrunning throughoutthisvolumetoproducerobustmodelssuitableforpurpose. Thevolume aimstoallowthereaderto nddataanddescriptorsanddevelop,discoverandutilise validmodels. Gdansk, ' Poland TomaszPuzyn Jackson,MS,USA JerzyLeszczynski Liverpool,UK MarkT. D. Cronin May2009 CONTENTS Part I Theory of QSAR 1 QuantitativeStructure-ActivityRelationships(QSARs)- ApplicationsandMethodology...3 Mark T. D. Cronin 1. 1. Introduction...3 1. 2. PurposeofQSAR...4 1. 3. ApplicationsofQSAR...4 1. 4. Methods...5 1. 5. TheCornerstonesofSuccessfulPredictiveModels ...7 1. 6. AValidated(Q)SARoraValidPrediction? ...9 1. 7. UsinginSilicoTechniques ...9 1. 8. NewAreasforinSilicoModels...11 1. 9. Conclusions...11 References ...11 2 TheUseofQuantumMechanicsDerivedDescriptorsin ComputationalToxicology...13 Steven J. Enoch 2. 1. Introduction...13 2. 2. TheSchrodingerEquation...15 2. 3. Hartree-FockTheory...17 2. 4. Semi-EmpiricalMethods:AM1andRM1...18 2. 5. ABInitio:DensityFunctionalTheory...19 2. 6. QSARforNon-ReactiveMechanismsofAcute(Aquatic) Toxicity...19 2. 7. QSARsforReactiveToxicityMechanisms...21 2. 7. 1. AquaticToxicityandSkinSensitisation...21 2. 7. 2. QSARsforMutagenicity ...24 2. 8. FutureDirectionsandOutlook...25 2. 9. Conclusions...26 References ...26 vii viii Contents 3 MolecularDescriptors...29 Viviana Consonni and Roberto Todeschini 3. 1. Introduction...29 3. 1. 1. De nitions...29 3. 1. 2. History...31 3. 1. 3. Theoreticalvs. ExperimentalDescriptors...33 3. 2. MolecularRepresentation ...35 3. 3. TopologicalIndexes...38 3. 3. 1. MolecularGraphs...38 3. 3. 2. De nitionandCalculationofTopologicalIndexes(TIs) 39 3. 3. 3. Graph-TheoreticalMatrixes...42 3. 3. 4. ConnectivityIndexes ...48 3. 3. 5. CharacteristicPolynomial ...50 3. 3. 6. SpectralIndexes ...53 3. 4. AutocorrelationDescriptors ...
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Table of Contents

Part I Theory of QSAR 1 Quantitative Structure-Acticity Relationships (QSAR) - Applications and Methodology Mark T. D. Cronin 2 The Use of Quantum Mechanics Derived Descriptors in Computational Toxicology Steven J. Enoch 3 Molecular Descriptors Viviana Consonni, Roberto Todeschini 4 3D-QSAR - Applications, Recent Advances and Limitations Wolfgang Sippl 5 Virtual Screening and Molecular Design Based on Hierarchical QSAR Technology Victor E. Kuz'min, A. G. Artemenko, Eugene N. Muratov, P. G. Polischuk, L. N. Ognichenko, A. V. Liahovsky, A. I. Hromov, E. V. Varlamova 6 Robust Methods in QSAR Michal Daszykowski, Ivana Stanimirova, Beata Walczak 7 Chemical Category Formation and Read Across for the Prediction of Toxicity Steven J. Enoch Part II Practical Applications 8 QSAR in Chromatography: Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships (QSRR) Roman Kaliszan, Tomasz Baczek 9 The Use of QSAR and Computational Methods in Drug Design Fania Bajot 10 In Silico Approaches for Predicting ADME Properties Judith C. Madden 11 Prediction of Harmful Human Health Effects of Chemicals from Structure Mark T.D. Cronin 12 Chemometric Methods and Theoretical Molecular Descriptors in Predictive QSAR Modeling of the Environmental Behaviour of Organic Pollutants Paola Gramatica 13 The Role of QSAR Methodology in the Regulatory Assessment of Chemicals Andrew P. Worth 14 Nanomaterials - the Next Great Challenge for QSAR Modelers Tomasz Puzyn, Agnieszka Gajewicz, Danuta Leszczynska, Jerzy Leszczynski

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