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Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 3E
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix 1 General Aspects of Thermodynamics 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Dimensions and Units 2 1.2.1 Systems of Units 2 1.3 Thermodynamics 9 1.4 Ideal and Real Gases 30 1.5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 36 1.6 Psychrometrics 49 1.7 Concluding Remarks 64 Nomenclature 64 Study Problems 67 References 70 2 Refrigerants 71 2.1 Introduction 71 2.2 Classification of Refrigerants 72 2.3 Prefixes and Decoding of Refrigerants 76 2.4 Secondary Refrigerants 79 2.5 Refrigerant-absorbent Combinations 80 2.6 Stratospheric Ozone Layer 82 2.7 Global Warming 89 2.8 Clean Air Act 94 2.9 Key Refrigerants 103 2.10 Selection of Refrigerants 115 2.11 Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants 116 2.12 Lubricating Oils and their Effects 120 2.13 Concluding Remarks 122 Study Problems 122 References 125 3 Refrigeration SystemComponents 127 3.1 Introduction 127 3.2 History of Refrigeration 128 3.3 Main Refrigeration Systems 130 3.4 Refrigeration System Components 131 3.5 Compressors 132 3.6 Condensers 156 3.7 Evaporators 165 3.8 Throttling Devices 172 3.9 Auxiliary Devices 177 3.10 Concluding Remarks 180 Nomenclature 180 Study Problems 182 References 187 4 Refrigeration Cycles and Systems 189 4.1 Introduction 189 4.2 Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 189 4.3 Energy Analysis of Vapor-compression Refrigeration Cycle 192 4.4 Exergy Analysis of Vapor-compression Refrigeration Cycle 195 4.5 Actual Vapor-compression Refrigeration Cycle 200 4.6 Air-standard Refrigeration Systems 210 4.7 Absorption Refrigeration Systems 216 4.8 Concluding Remarks 245 Nomenclature 245 Study Problems 247 References 258 5 Advanced Refrigeration Cycles and Systems 261 5.1 Introduction 261 5.2 Multistage Refrigeration Cycles 262 5.3 Cascade Refrigeration Systems 268 5.4 Multi-effect Absorption Refrigeration Systems 280 5.5 Steam-jet Refrigeration Systems 311 5.6 Adsorption Refrigeration 317 5.7 Stirling Cycle Refrigeration 322 5.8 Thermoelectric Refrigeration 328 5.9 Thermoacoustic Refrigeration 332 5.10 Metal Hydride Refrigeration 334 5.11 Magnetic Refrigeration 337 5.12 Supermarket Refrigeration Practices 345 5.13 Concluding Remarks 349 Nomenclature 349 Study Problems 351 References 354 6 Renewable Energy-based Integrated Refrigeration Systems 357 6.1 Introduction 357 6.2 Solar-powered Absorption Refrigeration Systems 358 6.3 Solar-powered Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 364 6.4 Wind-powered Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 368 6.5 Hydropowered Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 371 6.6 Geothermal-powered Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 375 6.7 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Powered Vapor-compression Refrigeration Systems 379 6.8 Biomass-powered Absorption Refrigeration Systems 383 6.9 Concluding Remarks 393 Nomenclature 394 Study Problems 395 Reference 398 7 Heat Pipes 399 7.1 Introduction 399 7.2 Heat Pipes 400 7.3 Heat Pipe Applications 403 7.4 Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling 405 7.5 Types of Heat Pipes 407 7.6 Heat Pipe Components 408 7.7 Operational Principles of Heat Pipes 417 7.8 Heat Pipe Performance 421 7.9 Design and Manufacture of Heat Pipes 424 7.10 Heat-transfer Limitations 428 7.11 Heat Pipes in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning 429 7.12 Concluding Remarks 436 Nomenclature 436 Study Problems 437 References 439 8 Food Refrigeration 441 8.1 Introduction 441 8.2 Food Deterioration 442 8.3 Food Preservation 443 8.4 Food Quality 444 8.5 Food Precooling and Cooling 446 8.6 Food Precooling Systems 448 8.7 Precooling of Milk 477 8.8 Food Freezing 479 8.9 Cool and Cold Storage 480 8.10 Controlled Atmosphere Storage 496 8.11 Refrigerated Transport 506 8.12 Respiration (Heat Generation) 515 8.13 Transpiration (Moisture Loss) 516 8.14 Cooling Process Parameters 522 8.15 Analysis of Cooling Process Parameters 524 8.16 Fourier-Reynolds Correlations 529 8.17 Cooling Heat-transfer Parameters 533 8.18 Conclusions 560 Nomenclature 561 Study Problems 563 References 565 9 Food Freezing 573 9.1 Introduction 573 9.2 Food Freezing Aspects 574 9.3 Quick Freezing 577 9.4 Enthalpy 577 9.5 Crystallization 578 9.6 Moisture Migration 579 9.7 Weight Loss 579 9.8 Blanching 580 9.9 Packaging 582 9.10 Quality of Frozen Foods 582 9.11 Food Freezing Process 585 9.12 Freezing Point 588 9.13 Freezing Rate 589 9.14 Freezing Times 590 9.15 Freezing Equipment 598 9.16 Ice Making 613 9.17 Thawing 615 9.18 Freeze-drying 616 9.19 Conclusions 625 Nomenclature 626 Study Problems 627 References 628 10 Environmental Impact and Sustainability Assessment of Refrigeration Systems 631 10.1 Introduction 631 10.2 Environmental Concerns 633 10.3 Energy and Environmental Impact 637 10.4 Dincer's Six Pillars 638 10.5 Dincer's 3S Concept 638 10.6 System Greenization 639 10.7 Sustainability 641 10.8 Energy and Sustainability 643 10.9 Exergy and Sustainability 645 10.10 Concluding Remarks 667 Study Problems 668 References 668 Appendix A Conversion Factors 671 Appendix B Thermophysical Properties 675 Appendix C Food Refrigeration Data 701 Index 719

About the Author

Ibrahim Dincer, PhD, is a full professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at UOIT and a leading authority in the area of sustainable energy systems, including refrigeration systems and applications. He is Vice President for Strategy in International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and Vice-President for World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (WSSET). Renowned for his pioneering works in the area of sustainable energy technologies, Professor Dincer has authored and co-authored numerous books and book chapters, more than a thousand refereed journal and conference papers, and many technical reports. He has chaired many national and international conferences, symposia, workshops and technical meetings and has delivered more than 300 keynote and invited lectures. Professor Dincer is an active member of various international scientific organizations and societies, and serves as editor-in-chief, associate editor, regional editor, and editorial board member on various prestigious international journals. He is a recipient of several research, teaching and service awards, including the Premier's research excellence award in Ontario, Canada, in 2004. Professor Dincer has made innovative contributions to the understanding and development of sustainable energy technologies and their implementation. He has actively been working in the areas of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and his group has developed various novel technologies/methods, etc. Furthermore, he has been recognized by Thomson Reuters as one of the World's Most Influential Scientific Minds in Engineering in 2014, 2015 and 2016.

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