Introduction Overview Objectives of the Book Possible Applications Historical Perspective Uncertainties in the Building Process Random Variables Basic Definitions Properties of Probability Functions (CDF, PDF, and PMF) Parameters of a Random Variable Common Random Variables Probability Paper Interpretation of Test Data Using Statistics Conditional Probability Random Vectors Correlation Bayesian Updating Problems Functions of Random Variables Linear Functions of Random Variables Linear Functions of Normal Variables Product of Lognormal Random Variables Nonlinear Function of Random Variables Central Limit Theorem Problems Simulation Techniques Monte Carlo Methods Latin Hypercube Sampling Rosenblueth's 2K + 1 Point Estimate Method Structural Safety Analysis Limit states Fundamental Case Reliability Index Rackwitz-Fiessler Procedure Reliability Analysis Using Simulation Problems Structural Load Models Types of Load General Load Models Dead Load Live Load in Buildings Live Load for Bridges Environmental Loads Load Combinations Problems Models of rResistance Parameters of Resistance Steel Components Aluminum Structures Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Components Wood Components Design Codes Overview Role of a Code in the Building Process Code Levels Code Development Procedure Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for a Level I Code Development of a Bridge Design Code Example of the Code Calibration-ACI 318 Concluding Remarks Problems System Reliability Elements and Systems Series and Parallel Systems Reliability Bounds for Structural Systems Systems with Equally Correlated Elements Systems with Unequally Correlated Elements Summary Problems Uncertainties in the Building Process Introduction Classification of Errors Error Surveys Approach to Errors Sensitivity Analysis Other Approaches Conclusions Appendix A: Acronyms Appendix B: Values of the CDF PHI(z) for the Standard Normal Probability Distribution Appendix C: Values of the Gamma Function Bibliography Index
Andrzej S. Nowak is Robert W. Brightfelt Professor of Engineering at the University of Nebraska, USA. He has received the ASCE Moisseiff Award, the IFIP WG 7.5 Award, the Bene Merentibus Medal, and the Kasimir Gzowski Medal from the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. Kevin R. Collins is an Associate Professor at Valley Forge Military College, USA.
"This is a great book ... easy to teach from; students can readily learn the theory from its beginnings to its practical applications; it is a course topic that will be of great value in understanding structural design during the professional life of the engineer; it is an invaluable tool to guide in the development of national design standards such as the AASHTO bridge design specification; it is logical and it is fun to go back to time and again." -Theodore V. Galambos, Emeritus Professor, University of Minnesota "... a must read for any engineer working in the civil engineering structures arena. ... provides the necessary knowledge to give structural engineers the tools they need to make better designs a priori and determine structural failures a posteriori." -Andrew D. Sorensen, Ph.D., Idaho State University, "Compared to other textbooks in this area, Reliability of Structures is particularly easy to understand. ... ideal for a first course in this topic, or if the classroom contains undergraduate students who might be otherwise lost in an advanced theoretical presentation. A particular strength is its discussion of design code development and calibration, perhaps the most important application of reliability analysis in structural engineering." -Christopher Eamon, Wayne State University