Introduction Objective Scope Purpose Acts of Terrorism and the Biological, Chemical, and Radiological Weapons Used against Water Infrastructure Introduction Characterization of Terrorism Chemical Terrorism Acts Potential Hazards of the Chemical Threats Potential Reduction Approach for Chemical Threats Biological Threats Radiological Threats Prescription Drugs (Pharmaceuticals), Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in the Water System Illustrative Example for Quantifying the Chemical Threats to Yield Mass Casualties and Acute Injuries Explosives Used Against Water Infrastructure Introduction Characterization of Explosive Materials Components and Applications of Explosive Materials Hazards of Explosives The Challenge of Improvised Explosive Device in the United States Water Infrastructure Introduction Acts of Terrorism against Water Infrastructure Groundwater Resources Surface Water Desalination Treatment Facilities Water Tanks Reservoirs Dams Aqueducts Municipal Water Treatment Plants Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Impacts Regulatory Policies for the Protection of Water Infrastructure US Regulatory Policies for Groundwater and Water Supply System Protection Funding for Protection Research Enforcement of Regulations Agencies Involved in Protection Policies Code of Federal Regulations Dams, Reservoirs, and Aqueducts Funding for Protection Research Related to Dams, Reservoirs, and Aqueducts Agencies and Programs Involved in the Protection Policies for Dams, Reservoirs, and Aqueducts Introduction to Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Introduction Standard Risk and Vulnerability Strategies and Models Historical Perspective of Prospect Theory The Cumulative Prospect Theory Advances in Prospect Theory A Need of Risk-Acceptability Analysis Standard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Introduction Standard Homeland Security Risk Assessment and RAMCAP Plus Processes CARVER Matrix CARVER + Shock Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide for Small Drinking Water System Automated Security Survey and Evaluation Tool (ASSET) Security Vulnerability Assessment Requirement of Incremental Risk Acceptability Analysis Quantitative Risk Estimation Model Elements of Risk Assessment Risk Estimated by Event Tree Analysis Estimation of Risk and Risk Factors Fault Tree Analysis Cumulative Prospect Theory and Risk Acceptability Introduction Public Perception of Risk Strategic Determination of Risk Acceptability Quantitative Revealed Societal Preference Method Establishing the Risk Referent Implication Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Preventive Measures Introduction National Response Framework Emergency Preparedness Response Baseline Priorities Activate and Deploy Resources Proactive Response to Catastrophic Incidents Recovery Preventive Measures Strategic Intelligence Analysis for Water Infrastructure Terrorism Prevention Introduction Intelligence Analysis Traditional Intelligence Cycle Quantitative Risk Estimation Model to Aid Intelligence Analysis Event Tree Analysis Model Perspectives of Risk Acceptability in Strategic Intelligence Analysis Implication Index
Anna M. Doro-on is an engineer with over 12 years professional experience in design, construction, and utility infrastructure projects. She specializes in the development and application of innovative environmental remediation technologies; civil, environmental, and water resources engineering; water and wastewater infrastructure design and rehabilitation; risk assessment and management for critical infrastructure with focus on terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and public health protection; reduction of contamination to water resources and the environment; quantitative risk assessment for catastrophic event prevention; technology development; and project inspections and monitoring. She holds M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Civil Engineering and Environmental Science & Engineering respectively, both from The University of Texas at San Antonio.