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The SAP General Ledger
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This second, updated, and extended edition of our standard reference book is your companion for the implementation of the new General Ledger. This book describes the optimal settings for ledger definition and document splitting, as well as the integration with accounting. Moreover, it includes a detailed description of parallel accounting, including segment reporting, storage location of data, and much more. A comprehensive chapter on migration as well as many practical reports shows what you need to consider for the changeover to New General Ledger. Design and Features of the Ledgers Get to know the ledger features (leading and non-leading ledgers), scenarios (business area, segmentation etc.), and the handling of custom fields. Integration in Financial Accounting Achieve an in-depth understanding of profit center accounting in the General Ledger, follow-up costs, and period-end closing. Parallel Accounting Explore the new parallel accounting options provided by ledger group-specific postings. Document Splitting Learn how to design, configure, and use document splitting, and get to know the active and passive document split. Migration Discover the migration components, including migration project details, the Migration Cockpit, and how to successfully migrate from the Classic to the New General Ledger. Practical Reports Benefit from numerous real-life project reports, which can be put to practical use.
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Table of Contents

* ... Introduction ... 13 * 1 ... New General Ledger in SAP ERP An Overview ... 19 * 1.1 ... The Path to New G/L in SAP ERP ... 19 * 1.1.1 ... Background ... 19 * 1.1.2 ... SAP R/3-Based Solutions for Financial Accounting ... 23 * 1.1.3 ... The Fragmentation Problem ... 29 * 1.2 ... Enhancement Package Technology ... 29 * 1.3 ... New General Ledger ... 32 * 1.3.1 ... Additional Functionality in General Ledger ... 33 * 1.3.2 ... Parallel Accounting ... 34 * 1.3.3 ... Default Field Extension ... 37 * 1.3.4 ... Segment Reporting ... 39 * 1.3.5 ... Document Online Split ... 41 * 1.3.6 ... Real-Time Integration of CO into FI ... 41 * 1.4 ... Conclusion ... 43 * 2 ... Design and Features of the Ledgers ... 45 * 2.1 ... Features of the Ledgers ... 45 * 2.1.1 ... Basis of the Ledgers ... 46 * 2.1.2 ... Leading Ledger ... 47 * 2.1.3 ... Non-Leading Ledgers ... 54 * 2.1.4 ... Data Concept ... 57 * 2.1.5 ... Changes to the Definition and Assignment of the Ledgers ... 64 * 2.1.6 ... Defining Ledger Groups ... 64 * 2.2 ... Scenarios ... 66 * 2.2.1 ... Defining and Assigning Scenarios for Ledgers ... 67 * 2.2.2 ... Scenario Views: Data Entry View and General Ledger View ... 69 * 2.2.3 ... Business Area Scenario ... 73 * 2.2.4 ... Profit Center Update Scenario ... 76 * 2.2.5 ... Segmentation Scenario ... 77 * 2.2.6 ... Preparations for Consolidation Scenario ... 88 * 2.2.7 ... Cost-of-Sales Accounting Scenario ... 93 * 2.2.8 ... Cost Center Update Scenario ... 97 * 2.3 ... Customer Fields ... 98 * 2.3.1 ... Extending the Coding Block ... 98 * 2.3.2 ... Adding Fields to the Totals Table ... 100 * 2.3.3 ... Defining Customer Totals Tables ... 104 * 2.3.4 ... Adding Customer Tables in Enjoy Transactions ... 105 * 2.4 ... Conclusion ... 107 * 3 ... Integration in Financial Accounting ... 109 * 3.1 ... Profit Center Accounting in New General Ledger ... 109 * 3.1.1 ... Financial Statement for Each Profit Center ... 110 * 3.1.2 ... Allocations in the General Ledger ... 111 * 3.1.3 ... Planning in the General Ledger ... 112 * 3.1.4 ... Enhancements for Planning with Enhancement Package 3 ... 116 * 3.1.5 ... Authorization Check for Profit Center ... 133 * 3.1.6 ... Evaluations ... 143 * 3.1.7 ... Assignment Monitor for Profit Centers ... 145 * 3.2 ... Reposting in Controlling ... 179 * 3.3 ... Online Posting of Follow-Up Costs ... 184 * 3.3.1 ... Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Accounting ... 184 * 3.3.2 ... Asset Accounting ... 186 * 3.4 ... Integration with Materials Management ... 189 * 3.4.1 ... Create Purchase Order ... 190 * 3.4.2 ... Post Goods Receipt ... 191 * 3.4.3 ... Check Incoming Invoice with Purchase Order Reference ... 191 * 3.4.4 ... Reduce and Post Vendor Invoice ... 193 * 3.4.5 ... Display Accounting Documents ... 194 * 3.5 ... Period-End Closing ... 197 * 3.5.1 ... Representative Ledger ... 198 * 3.5.2 ... Period Control with Three Periods ... 202 * 3.5.3 ... Periods for each General Ledger Account Assignment Object ... 203 * 3.6 ... Conclusion ... 204 * 4 ... Parallel Accounting IFRS on the Advance ... 205 * 4.1 ... Approaching Uniform Accounting Standards ... 205 * 4.2 ... Leading Valuation Approach ... 207 * 4.3 ... Basic Principles ... 208 * 4.4 ... Data Storage Location ... 209 * 4.4.1 ... Mapping via Parallel Accounts ... 209 * 4.4.2 ... Mapping via Parallel Company Codes ... 211 * 4.4.3 ... Mapping via Special Ledgers ... 212 * 4.4.4 ... Mapping via New General Ledger ... 213 * 4.4.5 ... Storage Location Conclusion ... 214 * 4.5 ... Fixed Assets ... 215 * 4.5.1 ... Valuation Variances Scenario ... 215 * 4.5.2 ... Asset Acquisition ... 215 * 4.5.3 ... Depreciation Posting Run ... 218 * 4.5.4 ... Asset Retirement with Revenue ... 219 * 4.5.5 ... Configuring Asset Accounting ... 221 * 4.6 ... Current Assets ... 225 * 4.6.1 ... Inventory Valuation ... 226 * 4.6.2 ... Receivables Valuation ... 234 * 4.6.3 ... Securities Valuation ... 243 * 4.7 ... Provisions ... 250 * 4.8 ... Posting and Clearing Specific to Ledger Groups (Enhancement Package 3) ... 257 * 4.8.1 ... Business Context ... 257 * 4.8.2 ... Indicators in the Master Record ... 258 * 4.8.3 ... Required Customizing Settings ... 259 * 4.8.4 ... Ledger Group-Specific Clearing for G/L Accounts Indicator Restrictions of Use ... 260 * 4.8.5 ... Process of Posting and Clearing Specific to Ledger Groups ... 261 * 4.8.6 ... Restriction Sample Accounts for Posting and Clearing Specific to Ledger Groups ... 284 * 4.9 ... Switching from G/L Accounts to Open Item Management ... 285 * 4.9.1 ... Customizing Settings ... 285 * 4.9.2 ... Sample Posting for the Switch to Open Item Management for G/L Accounts ... 290 * 4.10 ... Conclusion ... 291 * 5 ... Document Splitting ... 293 * 5.1 ... Reasons for Document Splitting ... 293 * 5.2 ... Concept ... 295 * 5.2.1 ... Active Split ... 296 * 5.2.2 ... Passive Split ... 297 * 5.2.3 ... Clearing Line Items ... 298 * 5.2.4 ... Data Concept ... 298 * 5.3 ... Examples of Applying Active and Passive Splits ... 299 * 5.3.1 ... Example of an Active Split ... 299 * 5.3.2 ... Simulating the General Ledger View ... 300 * 5.3.3 ... Document Simulation in Expert Mode ... 300 * 5.3.4 ... Example of a Passive Split ... 302 * 5.4 ... Configuration ... 304 * 5.4.1 ... Item Category ... 304 * 5.4.2 ... Business Transaction ... 306 * 5.4.3 ... Splitting Method ... 308 * 5.4.4 ... Definition of Document Splitting Characteristics ... 310 * 5.4.5 ... Default Account Assignment ... 311 * 5.4.6 ... Inheritance ... 315 * 5.4.7 ... Activation ... 319 * 5.4.8 ... Splitting Rules ... 321 * 5.5 ... Special G/L Transactions ... 332 * 5.6 ... Wizards for Customizing the Document Splitting ... 336 * 5.7 ... Periodic Processing ... 351 * 5.8 ... Conclusion ... 353 * 6 ... Migration ... 355 * 6.1 ... Activating New General Ledger ... 355 * 6.2 ... Migration Projects ... 360 * 6.2.1 ... Migration as a Discrete (Sub)Project ... 360 * 6.2.2 ... Other Independent Projects ... 363 * 6.3 ... The Phase Model of Migration ... 364 * 6.4 ... SAP Service for Migration ... 366 * 6.4.1 ... Content of the SAP General Ledger Migration Service ... 366 * 6.4.2 ... Migration Cockpit ... 367 * 6.4.3 ... SAP System Landscape ... 369 * 6.4.4 ... Remote Service Session for Scenario Validation ... 370 * 6.4.5 ... Remote Service Session for Test Validation ... 370 * 6.4.6 ... Delivery of Service Sessions ... 370 * 6.4.7 ... Booking the Service ... 372 * 6.5 ... Migration Scenarios ... 372 * 6.5.1 ... Overview of the Scenarios ... 373 * 6.5.2 ... Scenario 1 ... 374 * 6.5.3 ... Scenario 2 ... 375 * 6.5.4 ... Scenario 3 ... 376 * 6.5.5 ... Scenarios 4 and 5 ... 376 * 6.5.6 ... Scenario 6 ... 377 * 6.5.7 ... Scenario 7 ... 377 * 6.5.8 ... Looking Ahead ... 377 * 6.6 ... Migration Cockpit ... 378 * 6.6.1 ... Overview ... 379 * 6.6.2 ... Setup Phase ... 388 * 6.6.3 ... Checkup Phase ... 400 * 6.6.4 ... Preparation Phase ... 411 * 6.6.5 ... Migration Phase ... 413 * 6.6.6 ... Validation Phase ... 427 * 6.6.7 ... Activation Phase ... 430 * 6.7 ... Conclusion ... 431 * 7 ... Practical Reports ... 433 * 7.1 ... SAP Consulting ... 433 * 7.1.1 ... Parallel Accounting ... 433 * 7.1.2 ... Balance Sheets for Subaccount Assignments ... 434 * 7.1.3 ... Selected Aspects of Implementation ... 435 * 7.1.4 ... Additional Fields in New General Ledger ... 435 * 7.1.5 ... Using Document Splitting ... 436 * 7.1.6 ... Limits and Constraints on the Profit-Center Balance Sheet ... 437 * 7.1.7 ... Reporting vs. Operational Management ... 438 * 7.1.8 ... Further SAP Developments ... 438 * 7.1.9 ... Legacy Data Transfer ... 439 * 7.1.10 ... Lessons Learned ... 439 * 7.2 ... Accenture GmbH ... 440 * 7.2.1 ... Customer Description and Initial Situation ... 441 * 7.2.2 ... Challenges of the Project ... 441 * 7.2.3 ... Constitutional Project Decisions ... 441 * 7.2.4 ... Conclusion ... 449 * 7.3 ... Siemens IT Solutions and Services ... 450 * 7.3.1 ... Initial Situation ... 451 * 7.3.2 ... The New G/L Project ... 453 * 7.3.3 ... Success Factors and Lessons Learned from the Project ... 457 * 7.4 ... ConVista Consulting AG ... 459 * 7.4.1 ... Motivation and Implementation of Technical Requirements ... 460 * 7.4.2 ... Experiences Gained from the Projects ... 463 * 7.4.3 ... Experiences from Live Operation and Functional Aspects ... 464 * 7.4.4 ... Conclusion ... 466 * 7.5 ... J&M Management Consulting ... 466 * 7.5.1 ... Initial Situation ... 467 * 7.5.2 ... Updating Master Data ... 471 * 7.5.3 ... Configuring New General Ledger ... 471 * 7.5.4 ... Reporting ... 474 * 7.5.5 ... Migration Project ... 474 * 7.5.6 ... Conclusion ... 476 * 7.6 ... Conclusion ... 477 * ... Appendices ... 479 * A ... Frequently Asked Questions ... 479 * A.1 ... Technology ... 479 * A.2 ... Document Online Split ... 481 * A.3 ... Comparing Special Ledger with New General Ledger ... 483 * A.4 ... Parallel Financial Accounting and Ledgers ... 484 * A.5 ... Segment/Profit Center/Business Area/Customer Fields ... 485 * A.6 ... Integration ... 488 * A.7 ... Reporting ... 491 * A.8 ... Miscellaneous ... 493 * B ... The Authors ... 497 * ... Index ... 499

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