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Sand and Sandstone

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction and Source Materials.- Sand and Sandstone Defined.- Relative and Absolute Abundance.- Distribution, Past and Present.- History of Investigation.- Economic Value of Sand.- References.- General Sources for the Study of Sand and Sandstone.- General.- Sandy Environments and Depositional Systems.- Specialized Studies.- Sedimentary Petrology.- Manuals, Encyclopedias, and Special Tables.- I. The Fundamental Properties of Sandstones.- 2. Mineral and Chemical Composition.- Weathering.- Transport.- Diagenesis.- Mixing of Sources.- Sedimentary Differentiation.- Rock Fragments.- Detrital and Chemical Minerals.- Sandstone Mineral Ages.- X-Ray and Other Methods.- Surface Appearance.- The Detrital Minerals.- The Silica Minerals.- Feldspars.- Micas, Chlorites, and Clay Minerals.- Heavy Minerals.- Rock Fragments.- The Chemical Minerals.- Carbonates.- Sulfates.- Sulfides.- Other Minerals.- Organic Matter.- Relation of Mineralogy to Texture.- Mineralogy and Size.- Mineralogy and Resistance to Abrasion.- Chemical Composition.- Chemical Composition as a Function of Mineral Constituents.- Isotopic Composition.- Chemical Classification of Sandstones.- Chemical Composition as a Function of Sandstone Type.- Chemical Composition and Tectonic Setting.- References.- 3. Texture.- Grain Size.- Meaning of Size.- Techniques.- Statistical Measures.- Shape and Roundness.- Surface Textures.- Textural Maturity.- Evaluation.- Control of Physical Properties.- Fabric.- Porosity and Permeability.- References.- 4. Sedimentary Structures and Bedding.- Current and Deformational Structures.- Bedding.- Contemporaneously Deformed Bedding.- Biogenic Structures.- Chemical Structures.- Obtaining Maximum Value from Sedimentary Structures.- References.- II. The Petrography of Sandstones.- 5. Petrography of Common Sands and Sandstones.- Nomenclature and Classification.- Defining Parameters.- Major Trends in Sandstone Classification.- Making a Choice.- to Petrography.- Feldspathic Sands and Arkose.- Definitions.- General Description.- Varieties and Types of Arkose.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Provenance and Tectonics of Arkose.- Significance and Origin.- Lithic Arenites and Related Rocks.- Definitions and Nomenclature.- General Description.- Special Types.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Origin and Significance.- Graywackes and Related Rocks: The Wackes.- Definitions and History of Term.- General Description.- Varieties and Types of Graywacke.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- The Matrix Problem.- The Problem of Na2O.- Significance of Graywackes.- Quartz Arenites (Orthoquartzites).- Definitions and Nomenclature.- General Description.- Varieties.- Field Occurrence and Examples.- Distribution in Space and Time.- Significance and Origin of Quartz Arenites.- Miscellaneous Sandstones.- Hybrid Sands and Sandstones.- Greensands.- Phosphatic Sandstones.- Calcarenaceous Sandstones.- Tuffaceous Sandstones.- Relative Abundance of Sandstones and the "Average" Sandstone.- Sandstone Petrogenesis.- Glossary of Rock Names Applied to Sands and Sandstones.- References to Glossary.- References.- 6. Volcaniclastic Sandstones and Associated Rocks.- Characteristic Petrographic Features.- Petrographic Classification.- Volcaniclastic Deposits.- Pyroclastic Flows.- Air Falls.- Debris Avalanches.- Lahars.- Redeposited Volcaniclastic Sandstones.- Examples.- Tectonic Setting.- Plate Boundaries and Intraplate Volcanism.- Plate Tectonics and Basin Fill.- References.- III. Processes that form Sand and Sandstone.- 7. Production and Provenance of Sand.- How Sand is Formed.- Weathering.- Volcanism.- Crushing and Fracturing.- Pelletization.- Precipitation.- Summary and Grain-Size Distribution.- The Problem of Provenance.- Definitions and Concepts.- Evidence from Detrital Components.- Mineral Stability, Climate, and Provenance.- Reading Provenance History.- Provenance and Plate Tectonics.- Examples of Provenance Studies.- References.- 8. Transportation and Deposition of Sand.- Fluid Flow and Entrainment.- Aspects and Fluid Flow.- Settling Velocity.- Entrainment of Single Grains.- Suspension and Discontinuities in Grain-Size Curves.- Bedforms in Flumes and Alluvial and Tidal Channels.- Paleohydraulics and Open Channel Flow.- Transport and Bedforms on Sandy Shelves and Beaches.- Subaqueous Gravity Flows.- Wind.- Fabric.- References.- 9. Paleocurrents and Dispersal.- Dispersal Patterns Defined by Composition and Texture.- Dispersal Patterns Inferred from Primary Structures.- Deducing Current Direction from Sedimentary Structures.- Paleoslope and Current Directions.- Paleocurrent Models.- Alluvial.- Shoreline and Shallow Marine Shelf.- Basinal Turbidite Models.- Eolian Paleocurrent Patterns.- Volcanic.- Summary.- Paleocurrents and Time.- Paleocurrents and Basin Analysis.- Paleocurrents and Plate Tectonics.- References.- 10.Sandy Depositional Systems.- Concepts and Methods.- Depositional Strike, Paleoslope, and Walther's Law.- Associated Lithologies, Vertical Sequence, and Memory.- Geophysical Logs.- Seismic Stratigraphy.- Compaction.- References.- Alluvial.- Meandering Streams.- Braided Streams and Alluvial Fans.- Anastomosing Streams.- Coal Measures and Other Economic Deposits.- Summary.- References.- Deltas.- River-Dominated Deltas.- Tide-Dominated Deltas.- Wave-Dominated Deltas.- Summary.- References.- Fan Deltas.- References.- Sandy Coastlines and Shelves.- Sandy Coastlines.- Sandy Shelves.- Summary.- References.- Slope and Deep Basin.- Turbidite Model.- Ancient Turbidites.- Summary.- References.- Eolian.- Summary.- References.- Sandy Reservoirs.- References.- Epilogue; Unresolved Problems and Future Research.- References.- 11. Diagenesis.- Aspects of Diagenesis.- Diagenetic Textures and Compositions.- Textures.- Mineralogy.- Physical Properties.- Chemical Properties.- Summary: Two Typical Examples.- Physical Diagenetic Processes.- Compaction.- Bioturbation.- Graywacke Matrix Formation.- Clay Mineral Dehydration and Compaction.- Brittle and Ductile Deformation.- Chemical Diagenetic Processes.- Precipitation.- Dissolution.- Recrystallization.- Partial Dissolution and Alteration.- Porewater Reactions and Formation Waters.- Sequence and Timing of Mineral Transformations.- Cement Paragenesis.- Diagenetic Ages.- Major Diagenetic Effects.- Carbonate Cementation.- Silica Cementation.- Clay Minerals.- Alteration of Volcaniclastics and Zeolites.- Common Accessory Diagenetic Minerals.- Porosity Reduction and Production.- Burial Diagenesis.- Conclusion.- References.- 12. Sandstones, Tectonics, and Continental Evolution.- Sandy Basins.- Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Accumulations.- Geosynclines-The Classical View.- Plate Tectonic Settings.- Plate Convergence Settings.- Intra-oceanic Convergences.- Oceanic-Continental (Andean-Type) Convergences.- Continent-Continent Convergences (Himalayan-type).- Plate Divergence Environments.- Mid-Ocean Ridges.- Intra-Continental Rifts.- Plate Transform Boundary Settings.- Intra-Plate Settings.- Oceanic lntra-Plate.- Passive Continental Margins.- Continental Intra-Plate.- Evolutionary Sequences and Successor Basins.- Sandstone in the History of the Earth.- Sandstone Composition in Relation to Age.- Sandstones in Relation to Evolutionary Changes in Earth History.- Conclusions and a Look at the Future.- References.- Appendix: Petrographic Analysis of Sandstones.- Rock Description and Analysis.- A Comprehensive Petrographic Analysis: The Trivoli Sandstone of Southern Illinois.- References.- Author Index.

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