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Scientific Protocols for Forensic Examination of Clothing
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Table of Contents

Protocols, Procedures, and Philosophy
The Importance of Clothing Examination

Clothing a "Crime Scene"
Multiple Hypotheses, Alternative Explanations
The Origin of Evidence
Searching for Evidence and the Screening Effect
Checklists, Guidelines, and Protocols
Nonprescriptive Holistic Approach
Preliminary Inquiries
Focus of the Examination
Information Concerning the Crime
Levels of Information
History of Exhibit
Reference and Control Samples
Preservation, Handling, and Storage
Contamination Issues
Health and Safety
Preliminary Assessment
Documentation
Detection
Recovery
Clothing Construction
Yarn and Fabric Composition
Yarns or Threads
Fabric
Definitions
Sewing Terminology
Clothing Construction Terminology
Stains and Deposits
Introduction
Information from Preliminary Examination
Getting Started: Workflow for Examination of Stains and Deposits
Sampling of Stains and Deposits
Questions That Can Be Addressed by Stains and Deposits
Sorting Tools for Stains and Deposits
Establishing a Reference Collection
Writing Reports
Summary
Terminology for Stains and Deposits
Pattern Evidence
Blood Pattern Analysis (BPA)
Firearm Discharge Residue Patterns
Direct Contact Impressions: Imprints and Indentations
Physical Fit
Damage
Introduction
Damage Categories
Examination Approach
Normal Wear and Tear and "Recency"
Cuts
Tears
Holes and Punctures
Stabbing
Simulations
Physical Fit
Glass Cuts
Microbial Damage
Thermal (Fire and Heat) Damage
Firearm Damage
Other Textiles
Limitations
Glossary of Terms
Human Biological Evidence
Blood
Semen
Saliva
Vaginal Secretions, Urine, Feces, and Vomit
Dandruff
DNA
Wearer DNA
Trace DNA
Multiple Body Sources
Mixtures
Nonhuman Biological Evidence
Conclusion
Traces and Debris
The Nature of Debris
Sorting Tools for Evaluating Traces and Debris
Composition of Debris
Component vs. Non-Component Debris
Transfers of Debris
Questions That Can Be Addressed by Examinations of Traces and
Debris
Questions of Contact
Target vs. Context-Based Examinations
Absence of Debris
Summary: Nature, Composition, Source, and Transfers of
Traces and Debris
Sampling and Sorting
Reference Samples and Reference Standards
Reconstruction of Events
Process-Based Descriptive Terminology for Traces and Debris
Trace Evidence Recovery Guidelines (SWGMAT, 1999)
Results and Their Significance
Significance of the Evidence
Expectations
Context of Evidence Obtained from Clothing
Objectivity and Opinion
The Adversarial System and the Law
Interpretation and Communication of the Evidence
Peer, Technical, and Administrative Reviews
Training and Maintaining the Expertise of the Clothing Examiner
Appendices
Index

About the Author

Forensic scientists and technicians, attorneys, and judges.

Reviews

An interesting feature of this text is the practical exercises at the end of each chapter encouraging the reader to apply the various principles under discussion, and to visit local good and bad examples of green chemistry. --Lucy Mitton, Chemistry World "The science is supported by excellent illustrations and case studies. Each chapter is well-referenced for further study. ! essential for the proper understanding and preparation of that special case." --Law Society Journal

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