Introduction to Sensory TechniquesIntroductionDevelopment of Sensory TestingHuman Subjects as InstrumentsConducting a Sensory StudyReferencesSensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive ThemIntroductionSensory AttributesHuman SensesPerception at Threshold and AboveReferencesControls for Test Room, Products, and PanelIntroductionEnvironmental ControlsProduct ControlsPanelist ControlsReferencesFactors Influencing Sensory VerdictsIntroductionPhysiological FactorsPsychological FactorsPoor Physical ConditionReferencesMeasuring ResponsesIntroductionPsychophysical TheoryClassificationGradingRankingScalingReferencesGuidelines for Choice of TechniqueIntroductionDefine the Project ObjectiveDefine the Test ObjectiveIntegrate Project Objective and Test Objectives to Construct Test DesignReferenceOverall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist between Samples?IntroductionUnified Approach to Difference and Similarity TestingTriangle TestDuo-Trio TestTwo-out-of-Five TestSame/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)"A"-"Not A" TestDifference-from-Control TestSequential TestsReferencesAttribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ between Samples?Introduction: Paired Comparison DesignsDirectional Difference Test: Comparing Two SamplesSpecified Method of Tetrads: Comparing Two Samples on a Specified Attribute Using the Method of TetradsPairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis--Comparing Several Samples in All Possible PairsIntroduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block DesignsSimple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis: Randomized (Complete) Block DesignMultisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Friedman AnalysisMultisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test-Evaluation by Analysis of VarianceReferencesDetermining ThresholdIntroductionDefinitionsApplications of Threshold DeterminationsReferencesSelection and Training of Panel MembersIntroductionPanel DevelopmentSelection and Training for Difference TestsSelection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive TestingPanel Performance and MotivationAppendix 10.1 Prescreening QuestionnairesAppendix 10.2 Panel Leadership AdviceReferencesDescriptive Analysis TechniquesDefinitionField of ApplicationComponents of Descriptive AnalysisCommonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Trained PanelsCommonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Untrained PanelsApplication of Descriptive Analysis Panel DataReferencesSpectrum (TM) Descriptive Analysis MethodDesign of the Spectrum Descriptive MethodMyths About the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis MethodTerminology and Lexicon DevelopmentIntensityCombining the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method with Other MeasuresSpectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies and So OnReferencesAppendix 12.1 Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive AnalysisAppendix 12.2 Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive AnalysisAppendix 12.3 Streamlined Approach to Spectrum ReferencesAppendix 12.4 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Product LexiconsAppendix 12.5 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Examples of Full Product DescriptionsAppendix 12.6 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training ExercisesReferencesAffective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel Acceptance TestsPurpose and ApplicationsThe Subjects/Consumers in Affective TestsChoice of Test LocationAffective Methods: QualitativeAffective Methods: QuantitativeInternet ResearchUsing Other Sensory Methods to Uncover InsightsAppendix 13.1 Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and Home Use Test (HUT)Appendix 13.2 Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One InterviewsAppendix 13.3 Questionnaires for Consumer StudiesAppendix 13.4 Protocol Design for Consumer StudiesReferencesBasic Statistical MethodsIntroductionSummarizing Sensory DataStatistical Hypothesis TestingThurstonian ScalingStatistical Design of Sensory Panel StudiesAppendix 14.1 ProbabilityReferencesAdvanced Statistical MethodsIntroductionData RelationshipsPreference MappingTreatment Structure of an Experimental DesignReferencesGuidelines for Reporting ResultsIntroductionAnatomy of the ReportGraphical Presentation of DataExample Reports (Tables 16.2 through 16.4)ReferencesSensory Evaluation in Quality Control (QC/Sensory)IntroductionAttribute Descriptive MethodsDifference-from-Control MethodsIn-Out MethodReferencesAdvanced Consumer Research TechniquesIntroductionFront End of InnovationSequence MappingCapturing the Iconic ExperienceConsumer CocreationQualitative Use of Kano MethodologyBenefit Perception beyond Liking: Functional, Emotional, and Health and Wellness BenefitsBehavioral EconomicsCategory Appraisals, Key Drivers Studies and Sensory SegmentationAd ClaimsAdditional ResourcesReferencesStatistical TablesPractical Sensory ProblemsScenario 1Scenario 2Scenario 3Scenario 4Scenario 5ReferencesAdditional Qualitative References
Gail Vance Civille is president of Sensory Spectrum, Inc., a management consulting firm involved in the sensory evaluation of foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, paper, fabrics, personal care, and other consumer products. She has trained several flavor and texture descriptive profile panels in her work with industry, universities, and government. She has also conducted several workshops and courses in basic sensory evaluation methods as well as in advanced methods and theory. She is a founding member and former chair of the Society of Sensory Professionals, and has published several articles on general sensory methods as well as sophisticated descriptive flavor and texture techniques. B. Thomas Carr is principal of Carr Consulting, a research consulting firm that provides project management, product evaluation, and statistical support services to the food, beverage, personal care, and home care industries. He has over 30 years of experience in applying statistical techniques to all phases of research on consumer products. He is a member of the US delegation to the ISO TC34/SC12, is involved in the statistical training of scientists, and has been invited by several professional organizations to speak on topics of statistical methods and statistical consulting in industry.