Introduction to Sensory Techniques Introduction Development of Sensory Testing Human Subjects as Instruments Conducting a Sensory Study References Sensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive Them Introduction Sensory Attributes Human Senses Perception at Threshold and Above References Controls for Test Room, Products, and Panel Introduction Environmental Controls Product Controls Panelist Controls References Factors Influencing Sensory Verdicts Introduction Physiological Factors Psychological Factors Poor Physical Condition References Measuring Responses Introduction Psychophysical Theory Classification Grading Ranking Scaling References Guidelines for Choice of Technique Introduction Define the Project Objective Define the Test Objective Integrate Project Objective and Test Objectives to Construct Test Design Reference Overall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist between Samples? Introduction Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing Triangle Test Duo-Trio Test Two-out-of-Five Test Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test) "A"-"Not A" Test Difference-from-Control Test Sequential Tests References Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ between Samples? Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples Specified Method of Tetrads: Comparing Two Samples on a Specified Attribute Using the Method of Tetrads Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis--Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block Designs Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis: Randomized (Complete) Block Design Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Friedman Analysis Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance References Determining Threshold Introduction Definitions Applications of Threshold Determinations References Selection and Training of Panel Members Introduction Panel Development Selection and Training for Difference Tests Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing Panel Performance and Motivation Appendix 10.1 Prescreening Questionnaires Appendix 10.2 Panel Leadership Advice References Descriptive Analysis Techniques Definition Field of Application Components of Descriptive Analysis Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Trained Panels Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Untrained Panels Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data References Spectrum (TM) Descriptive Analysis Method Design of the Spectrum Descriptive Method Myths About the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method Terminology and Lexicon Development Intensity Combining the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method with Other Measures Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies and So On References Appendix 12.1 Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis Appendix 12.2 Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis Appendix 12.3 Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References Appendix 12.4 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Product Lexicons Appendix 12.5 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Examples of Full Product Descriptions Appendix 12.6 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises References Affective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel Acceptance Tests Purpose and Applications The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests Choice of Test Location Affective Methods: Qualitative Affective Methods: Quantitative Internet Research Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights Appendix 13.1 Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and Home Use Test (HUT) Appendix 13.2 Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One Interviews Appendix 13.3 Questionnaires for Consumer Studies Appendix 13.4 Protocol Design for Consumer Studies References Basic Statistical Methods Introduction Summarizing Sensory Data Statistical Hypothesis Testing Thurstonian Scaling Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies Appendix 14.1 Probability References Advanced Statistical Methods Introduction Data Relationships Preference Mapping Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design References Guidelines for Reporting Results Introduction Anatomy of the Report Graphical Presentation of Data Example Reports (Tables 16.2 through 16.4) References Sensory Evaluation in Quality Control (QC/Sensory) Introduction Attribute Descriptive Methods Difference-from-Control Methods In-Out Method References Advanced Consumer Research Techniques Introduction Front End of Innovation Sequence Mapping Capturing the Iconic Experience Consumer Cocreation Qualitative Use of Kano Methodology Benefit Perception beyond Liking: Functional, Emotional, and Health and Wellness Benefits Behavioral Economics Category Appraisals, Key Drivers Studies and Sensory Segmentation Ad Claims Additional Resources References Statistical Tables Practical Sensory Problems Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 References Additional Qualitative References
Gail Vance Civille is president of Sensory Spectrum, Inc., a management consulting firm involved in the sensory evaluation of foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, paper, fabrics, personal care, and other consumer products. She has trained several flavor and texture descriptive profile panels in her work with industry, universities, and government. She has also conducted several workshops and courses in basic sensory evaluation methods as well as in advanced methods and theory. She is a founding member and former chair of the Society of Sensory Professionals, and has published several articles on general sensory methods as well as sophisticated descriptive flavor and texture techniques. B. Thomas Carr is principal of Carr Consulting, a research consulting firm that provides project management, product evaluation, and statistical support services to the food, beverage, personal care, and home care industries. He has over 30 years of experience in applying statistical techniques to all phases of research on consumer products. He is a member of the US delegation to the ISO TC34/SC12, is involved in the statistical training of scientists, and has been invited by several professional organizations to speak on topics of statistical methods and statistical consulting in industry.