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Seriation, Stratigraphy, and Index Fossils


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Table of Contents

1. An Introduction to Time and Dating. Preliminary Considerations. Relative and Absolute Time. Continuous and Discontinuous Time. Direct and Indirect Dating. Scientific Dating. Time and Its Measurement. Nominal Scale Measurement. Ordinal Scale Measurement. Ordinal Scale Measurement. Interval Scale Measurement. Ratio Scale Measurement. Beyond Measurement Scale: Ideational and Empirical Units. 2. The Creation of Archaeological Types. Initial Considerations. Constructing Chronological Types. Chronological Types in Americanist Archaeology. Typological issues Begin to Take Shape. Typology in Retrospect. 3. Seriation I: Historical Continuity, Heritable Continuity, and Phyletic Seriation. What Is Seriation? Seriation in Americanist Archaeology. The Key Assumptions: Historical and Heritable Continuity. Continuity and the Study of Organisms. Tracing Lineages. Detecting Heritable Continuity. Historical Continuity, Heritable Continuity, and the Study of Artifacts. Culture Traits. W.M. Flinders Petrie and Artifacts from Egyptian Tombs. John Evans and Gold Coins from Britain. A. V. Kidder and Pottery from Pecos Pueblo. The Gladwin-Colton-Hargrave System. Projectile Point Evolution. 4. Seriation II: Frequency Seriation and Occurrence Seriation. The First Frequency Seriation. How Do Occurrence and Frequency Seriation Work? The Seriation Model. Requirements and Conditions of Seriation. Occurrence Seriation. Frequency Seriation. Meeting the Conditions of the Seriation Model. Temporal Resolution and Rates of Change. Absolute Seriation. A Final Note. 5. Superposition and Stratigraphy: Measuring Time Discontinuously. Strata, Stratigraphy, and Superposition. Stratigraphic Excavation. Stratigraphic Excavation in Historical Context. Early Stratigraphic Excavation. On the Eve of the `Revolution'. The Real Revolution. What Was the Revolution? After the Revolution: Measuring Time with Strata. Measuring Time at Gatecliff Shelter, Nevada. The Final Proof Is in the Spade, But. 6. Cross Dating: The Use of Index Fossils. Folsom and Clovis Points. George C. Vaillant and the Mexican Formative. James A. Ford and the Lower Mississippi Valley. Measuring Time Discontinuously. 7. Final Thoughts on Archaeological Time: A Cash of Two Metaphysics. Measuring Time Continuously. Measuring Time Discontinuously. Concluding Remarks. References. Index.

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Springer Book Archives


` a very useful book.'
North American Archaeologist, 22:4 (2001)

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