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Sociology
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Detailed Contents Preface to the Fourth EditionHow to Use this Book 1 What is Sociology? DEVELOPING A SOCIOLOGICAL OUTLOOKStudying sociologyHOW CAN SOCIOLOGY HELP US IN OUR LIVES? Awareness of cultural differencesAssessing the effects of policiesSelf-enlightenmentTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THINKINGEarly theoristsAuguste ComteEmile DurkheimKarl MarxMax WeberSOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVESFunctionalismConflict perspectivesSocial action perspectivesNew directions in sociological thinkingCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questions 2 Culture and Society THE CONCEPT OF CULTUREValues and normsCultural diversityEthnocentrismSOCIALIZATIONSocial rolesIdentityTYPES OF SOCIETYDisappearing world: premodern societies and their fateThe modern world: industrial societiesGlobal developmentSOCIAL CHANGEInfluences on social changeChange in the modern periodCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther reading 3 A Changing World DIMENSIONS OF GLOBALIZATIONFactors contributing to globalizationThe causes of increasing globalizationTHE GLOBALIZATION DEBATEThe 'sceptics'The 'hyperglobalizers'The 'transformationalists'THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON OUR LIVESIdentityWork patternsPopular cultureGLOBALIZATION AND RISKThe spread of 'manufactured risk'The global 'risk society'GLOBALIZATION AND INEQUALITYInequality and global stratificationThe campaign for 'global justice'CONCLUSION: THE NEED FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCESummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 4 Social Interaction and Everyday Life THE STUDY OF EVERYDAY LIFEMicrosociology and macrosociologyNON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONThe face, gestures and emotion'Face' and self esteemGender and non-verbal communicationSOCIAL RULES AND TALKShared understandingsGarfinkel's experiments'Interactional vandalism'Forms of talkResponse criesSlips of the tongueFACE, BODY AND SPEECH IN INTERACTIONEncountersMarkersImpression managementFront and back regionsPersonal spaceINTERACTION IN TIME AND SPACEClock timeSocial life and the ordering of space and timeCONCLUSION: THE COMPULSION OF PROXIMITYSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther reading 5 Gender and SexualityGENDER DIFFERENCESGender socializationGender and biology: natural differenceThe social construction of gender and sexPERSPECTIVES ON GENDER INEQUALITYFunctionalist approachesFeminist approachesFEMININITIES, MASCULINITES AND GENDER RELATIONSR. W. Connell: the gender orderTransforming masculinitiesHUMAN SEXUALITYBiology and sexual behaviourSocial influences on sexual behaviourSexuality in Western cultureA new fidelity? HOMOSEXUALITYHomosexuality in Western cultureAttitudes towards homosexualityThe campaign for legal rights and recognitionProstitutionProstitution todayChild prostitution and the global 'sex industry'Explaining prostitutionCONCLUSION: GENDER AND GLOBALIZATIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 6 Sociology of the Body: Health, Illness and AgeingTHE SOCIOLOGY OF THE BODYTHE SOCIAL BASIS OF HEALTHClass and healthGender and healthRace and healthThe 'inverse care' lawMEDICINE AND SOCIETYThe rise of the biomedical model of healthThe biomedical modelCritiques of the biomedical modelMedicine and health in a changing worldSOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH AND ILLNESSThe sick roleIllness as 'lived experience'HEALTH AND AGEINGThe physical effects of ageingProblems of ageingCONCLUSION: THE FUTURE OF AGEINGSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 7 Families BASIC CONCEPTSFamily diversityTHEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE FAMILYFunctionalismFeminist approachesNew perspectives in the sociology of the familyMARRIAGE AND DIVORCE IN BRITAINLone-parent householdsRemarriageReconstituted familiesThe 'absent father'Women remaining childlessVARIATIONS IN FAMILY PATTERNS: ETHNIC DIVERSITY IN BRITAINSouth Asian familiesBlack familiesALTERNATIVES TO MARRIAGECohabitationGay and lesbian partnershipsVIOLENCE AND ABUSE IN FAMILY LIFEViolence within familiesSexual abuse of children and incestTHE DEBATE ABOUT FAMILY VALUESSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 8 Crime and Deviance THE SOCIOLOGY OF DEVIANCEEXPLAINING CRIME AND DEVIANCEBiological explanations: 'criminal types'Psychological explanations: 'abnormal mental states'SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCEFunctionalist theoriesInteractionist theoriesConflict theories: 'the new criminology'Control theoriesTheoretical conclusionsPATTERNS OF CRIME IN THE UNITED KINGDOMCrime and crime statisticsCRIME REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN THE RISK SOCIETYPolicy responses to crimePolicing the risk societyCommunity policingVICTIMS AND PERPETRATORS OF CRIMEGender and crimeCrimes against homosexualsYouth and crimeWhite-collar crimeORGANIZED CRIMEThe changing face of organized crimeCybercrimePRISONS: THE ANSWER TO CRIME? CONCLUSION: CRIME, DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL ORDERSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 9 Race, Ethnicity and MigrationUNDERSTANDING RACE AND ETHNICITYRaceEthnicityPREJUDICE, DISCRIMINATION AND RACISMRacismEXPLAINING RACISM AND ETHNIC DISCRIMINATIONPsychological interpretationsSociological interpretationsETHNIC INTEGRATION AND ETHNIC CONFLICTModels of ethnic integrationEthnic conflictGLOBAL MIGRATIONMigratory movementsGlobal diasporasIMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED KINGDOMChanging immigration policy in BritainETHNIC DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED KINGDOMRace and inequalityEmployment and economic successHousingRace and crimeIMMIGRATION AND ETHNIC RELATIONS ON THE CONTINENTMigration and the European UnionRefugees, asylum seekers and economic migrantsCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 10 Class, Stratification and Inequality THEORIES OF CLASS AND STRATIFICATIONKarl Marx's theoryThe nature of classMax Weber's theoryErik Olin Wright's theory of classMEASURING CLASSJohn Goldthorpe: class and occupationEvaluating class schemesSOCIAL CLASS DIVISIONS IN WESTERN SOCIETY TODAYThe question of the upper classThe middle classThe changing nature of the working classClass and lifestyleThe underclassGENDER AND STRATIFICATIONDetermining women's class positionThe impact of women's employment on class divisionsSOCIAL MOBILITYComparative mobility studiesDownward mobilitySocial mobility in BritainGender and social mobilityCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 11 Poverty, Welfare and Social Exclusion POVERTYWhat is poverty? Measuring povertyRecent trends in poverty in the UKWho are the poor? Explaining povertyPoverty and social mobilityTHE UNDERCLASS CONTROVERSYBackground to the underclass debateThe underclass, the EU and migrationIs there an underclass in Britain? SOCIAL EXCLUSIONForms of social exclusionThe homelessCrime and social exclusionWELFARE AND THE REFORM OF THE WELFARE STATETheories of the welfare stateThe rise of the British welfare stateReforming the welfare stateCONCLUSION: RETHINKING EQUALITY AND INEQUALITYSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 12 Modern Organizations ORGANIZATIONS AND MODERN LIFETHEORIES OF ORGANIZATIONWeber's view of bureaucracyMichel Foucault's theory of organizations: the control of time and spaceBureaucracy and democracyGENDER AND ORGANIZATIONSWomen in managementBEYOND BUREAUCRACY? Organizational change: the Japanese modelThe transformation of managementTechnology and modern organizationsOrganizations as networksThe debate over debureaucratizationCONCLUSIONSummary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 13 Work and Economic Life WHAT IS WORK? Paid and unpaid workTRENDS IN THE OCCUPATIONAL SYSTEMThe knowledge economyTHE DIVISION OF LABOUR AND ECONOMIC DEPENDENCETaylorism and FordismThe limitations of Taylorism and FordismTHE TRANSFORMATION OF WORKPost-FordismFlexible productionGroup production'Multiskilling'Criticisms of post-FordismWOMEN AND WORKWomen and the workplace: the historical viewThe growth in women's economic activityGender and inequalities at workThe wage gapAre occupational gender inequalities breaking down? The domestic division of labourWORK AND THE FAMILYThe work-family challenge'Family friendly' work policiesUNEMPLOYMENTAnalysing unemploymentTrends in unemployment in BritainThe experience of unemploymentJOB INSECURITYThe rise in job insecurityThe harmful effects of job insecurityThe end of the 'job for life'? THE DECLINING IMPORTANCE OF WORK? Summary pointsCritical thinking questionsFurther readingInternet links 14 Government and Politics GOVERNMENT, POLITICS AND POWERTHE CONCEPT OF THE STATETYPES OF POLITICAL RULEMonarchyDemocracyAuthoritarianismTHE GLOBAL SPREAD OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACYThe fall of communismExplaining the popularity of liberal democracyThe paradox of democracyPOLITICAL PARTIES AND VOTING IN WESTERN COUNTRIESParty systemsParties and voting in BritainThatcherism and after'New Labour'Third way politicsPOLITICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGEGlobalization and social movementsTechnology and social movementsNATIONALIST MOVEMENTSTheories of nationalism and the nationNations without statesNations and nationalism in developing countriesCONCLUSION: THE NATION-STATE, NATIONAL IDENTITY AND GLOBALIZATIONSumma

About the Author

Anthony Giddens is Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science. He was formerly Professor of Sociology and Fellow of King's College at the University of Cambridge.

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