Stability and Stabilization

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Stability and Stabilization is the first intermediate-level textbook that covers stability and stabilization of equilibria for both linear and nonlinear time-invariant systems of ordinary differential equations. Designed for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the sciences, engineering, and mathematics, the book takes a unique modern approach that bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear systems. Presenting stability and stabilization of equilibria as a core problem of mathematical control theory, the book emphasizes the subject's mathematical coherence and unity, and it introduces and develops many of the core concepts of systems and control theory. There are five chapters on linear systems and nine chapters on nonlinear systems; an introductory chapter; a mathematical background chapter; a short final chapter on further reading; and appendixes on basic analysis, ordinary differential equations, manifolds and the Frobenius theorem, and comparison functions and their use in differential equations. The introduction to linear system theory presents the full framework of basic state-space theory, providing just enough detail to prepare students for the material on nonlinear systems. * Focuses on stability and feedback stabilization * Bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear systems for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Balances coverage of linear and nonlinear systems * Covers cascade systems * Includes many examples and exercises

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List of Figures xi Preface xiii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Open Loop Control 1 1.2 The Feedback Stabilization Problem 2 1.3 Chapter and Appendix Descriptions 5 1.4 Notes and References 11 Chapter 2: Mathematical Background 12 2.1 Analysis Preliminaries 12 2.2 Linear Algebra and Matrix Algebra 12 2.3 Matrix Analysis 17 2.4 Ordinary Differential Equations 30 2.4.1 Phase Plane Examples: Linear and Nonlinear 35 2.5 Exercises 44 2.6 Notes and References 48 Chapter 3: Linear Systems and Stability 49 3.1 The Matrix Exponential 49 3.2 The Primary Decomposition and Solutions of LTI Systems 53 3.3 Jordan Form and Matrix Exponentials 57 3.3.1 Jordan Form of Two-Dimensional Systems 58 3.3.2 Jordan Form of n-Dimensional Systems 61 3.4 The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem 67 3.5 Linear Time Varying Systems 68 3.6 The Stability Definitions 71 3.6.1 Motivations and Stability Definitions 71 3.6.2 Lyapunov Theory for Linear Systems 73 3.7 Exercises 77 3.8 Notes and References 81 Chapter 4: Controllability of Linear Time Invariant Systems 82 4.1 Introduction 82 4.2 Linear Equivalence of Linear Systems 84 4.3 Controllability with Scalar Input 88 4.4 Eigenvalue Placement with Single Input 92 4.5 Controllability with Vector Input 94 4.6 Eigenvalue Placement with Vector Input 96 4.7 The PBH Controllability Test 99 4.8 Linear Time Varying Systems: An Example 103 4.9 Exercises 105 4.10 Notes and References 108 Chapter 5: Observability and Duality 109 5.1 Observability, Duality, and a Normal Form 109 5.2 Lyapunov Equations and Hurwitz Matrices 117 5.3 The PBH Observability Test 118 5.4 Exercises 121 5.5 Notes and References 123 Chapter 6: Stabilizability of LTI Systems 124 6.1 Stabilizing Feedbacks for Controllable Systems 124 6.2 Limitations on Eigenvalue Placement 128 6.3 The PBH Stabilizability Test 133 6.4 Exercises 134 6.5 Notes and References 136 Chapter 7: Detectability and Duality 138 7.1 An Example of an Observer System 138 7.2 Detectability, the PBH Test, and Duality 142 7.3 Observer-Based Dynamic Stabilization 145 7.4 Linear Dynamic Controllers and Stabilizers 147 7.5 LQR and the Algebraic Riccati Equation 152 7.6 Exercises 156 7.7 Notes and References 159 Chapter 8: Stability Theory 161 8.1 Lyapunov Theorems and Linearization 161 8.1.1 Lyapunov Theorems 162 8.1.2 Stabilization from the Jacobian Linearization 171 8.1.3 Brockett's Necessary Condition 172 8.1.4 Examples of Critical Problems 173 8.2 The Invariance Theorem 176 8.3 Basin of Attraction 181 8.4 Converse Lyapunov Theorems 183 8.5 Exercises 183 8.6 Notes and References 187 Chapter 9: Cascade Systems 189 9.1 The Theorem on Total Stability 189 9.1.1 Lyapunov Stability in Cascade Systems 192 9.2 Asymptotic Stability in Cascades 193 9.2.1 Examples of Planar Systems 193 9.2.2 Boundedness of Driven Trajectories 196 9.2.3 Local Asymptotic Stability 199 9.2.4 Boundedness and Global Asymptotic Stability 202 9.3 Cascades by Aggregation 204 9.4 Appendix: The Poincar'e-Bendixson Theorem 207 9.5 Exercises 207 9.6 Notes and References 211 Chapter 10: Center Manifold Theory 212 10.1 Introduction 212 10.1.1 An Example 212 10.1.2 Invariant Manifolds 213 10.1.3 Special Coordinates for Critical Problems 214 10.2 The Main Theorems 215 10.2.1 Definition and Existence of Center Manifolds 215 10.2.2 The Reduced Dynamics 218 10.2.3 Approximation of a Center Manifold 222 10.3 Two Applications 225 10.3.1 Adding an Integrator for Stabilization 226 10.3.2 LAS in Special Cascades: Center Manifold Argument 228 10.4 Exercises 229 10.5 Notes and References 231 Chapter 11: Zero Dynamics 233 11.1 The Relative Degree and Normal Form 233 11.2 The Zero Dynamics Subsystem 244 11.3 Zero Dynamics and Stabilization 248 11.4 Vector Relative Degree of MIMO Systems 251 11.5 Two Applications 254 11.5.1 Designing a Center Manifold 254 11.5.2 Zero Dynamics for Linear SISO Systems 257 11.6 Exercises 263 11.7 Notes and References 267 Chapter 12: Feedback Linearization of Single-Input Nonlinear Systems 268 12.1 Introduction 268 12.2 Input-State Linearization 270 12.2.1 Relative Degree n 271 12.2.2 Feedback Linearization and Relative Degree n 272 12.3 The Geometric Criterion 275 12.4 Linearizing Transformations 282 12.5 Exercises 285 12.6 Notes and References 287 Chapter 13: An Introduction to Damping Control 289 13.1 Stabilization by Damping Control 289 13.2 Contrasts with Linear Systems: Brackets, Controllability, Stabilizability 296 13.3 Exercises 299 13.4 Notes and References 300 Chapter 14: Passivity 302 14.1 Introduction to Passivity 302 14.1.1 Motivation and Examples 302 14.1.2 Definition of Passivity 304 14.2 The KYP Characterization of Passivity 306 14.3 Positive Definite Storage 309 14.4 Passivity and Feedback Stabilization 314 14.5 Feedback Passivity 318 14.5.1 Linear Systems 321 14.5.2 Nonlinear Systems 325 14.6 Exercises 327 14.7 Notes and References 330 Chapter 15: Partially Linear Cascade Systems 331 15.1 LAS from Partial-State Feedback 331 15.2 The Interconnection Term 333 15.3 Stabilization by Feedback Passivation 336 15.4 Integrator Backstepping 349 15.5 Exercises 355 15.6 Notes and References 357 Chapter 16: Input-to-State Stability 359 16.1 Preliminaries and Perspective 359 16.2 Stability Theorems via Comparison Functions 364 16.3 Input-to-State Stability 366 16.4 ISS in Cascade Systems 372 16.5 Exercises 374 16.6 Notes and References 376 Chapter 17: Some Further Reading 378 Appendix A: Notation: A Brief Key 381 Appendix B: Analysis in R and Rn 383 B.1 Completeness and Compactness 386 B.2 Differentiability and Lipschitz Continuity 393 Appendix C: Ordinary Differential Equations 393 C.1 Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions 393 C.2 Extension of Solutions 396 C.3 Continuous Dependence 399 Appendix D: Manifolds and the Preimage Theorem; Distributions and the Frobenius Theorem 403 D.1 Manifolds and the Preimage Theorem 403 D.2 Distributions and the Frobenius Theorem 410 Appendix E: Comparison Functions and a Comparison Lemma 420 E.1 Definitions and Basic Properties 420 E.2 Differential Inequality and Comparison Lemma 424 Appendix F: Hints and Solutions for Selected Exercises 430 Bibliography 443 Index 451

This book is a pleasant surprise. William Terrell selects and presents the field's key results in a fresh and unbiased way. He is enthusiastic about the material and his goal of setting forth linear and nonlinear stabilization in a unified format. -- Miroslav Krstic, University of California, San Diego This textbook has very positive features. The arguments are complete; it does not shy away from making correct proofs one of its main goals; it strikes an unusually good balance between linear and nonlinear systems; and it has many examples and exercises. It is also mathematically sophisticated for an introductory text, and it covers very recent material. -- Jan Willems, coauthor of "Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory"

William J. Terrell is associate professor of mathematics and applied mathematics at Virginia Commonwealth University. In 2000, he received a Lester R. Ford Award for excellence in expository writing from the Mathematical Association of America.

"This book takes a unique modern approach that bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear systems... Clear formulated definitions and theorems, correct proofs and many interesting examples and exercises make this textbook very attractive."--Ferenc Szenkovits, Mathematica

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