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Standard Methods of Geophysical Formation Evaluation
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These three works cover the entire field of formation evaluation, from basic concepts and theories, through standard methods used by the petroleum industry, on to new and exciting applications in environmental science and engineering, hydrogeology, and other fields. Designed to be used individually or as a set, these volumes represent the first comprehensive assessment of all exploration methodologies. No other books offer the breadth of information and range of applications available in this set.
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Table of Contents

Resistivity Methods Introduction Unfocused Resistivity Methods Single Electrode Systems Equivalent Circuit Effect of Formation Resistivity Volume of Investigation Averaging within the Volume of Investigation Position of the Return Electrode Return Electrode Grounding Resistance Multi-Electrode Systems Normal Resistivity Devices Empirical Method to Estimate Rt Departure Curves Lateral Resistivity Devices General Expression for Resistivity Devices Microresistivity Systems Miscellaneous Resistivity Items Surface Resistivity Methods Focused Resistivity Methods Focusing Electrode Devices, Omnidirectional 3-Electrode Guard Logs 7-Electrode Guard Logs Shallow Investigating Guarded Electrode Device Spherically Focused Systems Radial Pseudo-Geometrical Factors Sidewall Guarded Electrode Systems Microlaterolog (MLL) Proximity Log (PL) Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL) General Reduction Procedure Induction Methods Introduction Principle Conventional Induction Logs Phasor Induction Systems Array Induction Logs Factors Affecting Induction Logs Skin Effect Bed Boundary Effects Thin Bed Response Dipping Beds Net Bed Boundary Response Data Reduction Borehole Corrections Adjacent Bed Correction Invaded Zone Correction Resistivity Log Interpretation Introduction The Archie Method Values of the Cementation Exponent The Ratio Method The Rocky Mountain Method The Migrated Hydrocarbon Method Estimation of Permeability from Resistivity Gradient Determination of the Diameter of Invasion Reading "Tornado" Charts, Detail Rt vs. ? Crossplot, The Pickett Plot The Nonlinear (Hingle) Crossplot The Movable Hydrocarbon Method The FR,a vs. FR Method The RW,a vs. RW Method Non-Hydrocarbon Usage of Resistance and Resistivity Spontaneous Potentials Introduction Principles Physical Principles Absorption or Shale Potential The Electrochemical or Diffusion Potential Effect of Ion Types Thin Beds Formation Water Resistivity, RW Taking Ion Types into Consideration The Effect of Shale Direction of Deflection Formation Resistivity Effects The Static SP Calculation of Salinity Reduction of Data Example The Electrokinetic Component Redox Component Problems with SP Measurements Resistance Component Sensitivity to Motion Electrodes Touching the Sidewall Bimetallism Improper Electrode Material Methods of Determining RW and Use of RW Calculations SP vs. RXO/Rt; the Ratio Method Ionic Conduction RW from Resistivity Values The Use of RWa The Dual Water Model RW from RXO and Rt Dunlap Multipliers The SP Measurement in Fresh Water Sands Natural Gamma Radiation Introduction Radiation from Formation Materials Clays Sands Carbonates Igneous and Metamorphic Materials Fractures and Faults Gross or Total Count Gamma Ray Systems Ranges of Detection Equilibrium Volume of Investigation and Borehole Corrections Calibrations Uses Volume of Clay/Shale Estimation, Vsh Correlation Lithology Dead Time Bed Boundary Effects Thin Beds Dipping Beds and Slant Holes Grade Calculations Fracture Detection Tracers Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Introduction Chemical and Geological Implications System Types Detectors Single Window Systems KUT Systems MCA Systems Monitoring Systems Problems with Spectrographic Systems Major Mineral Systems Uraniferous Minerals Systems Thorium Minerals Potassium Minerals General Miscellaneous Effects Spectrometric Ratios Uses of Ratios Crossplotting Scattered Gamma Ray Methods Introduction Formation Density Logging Source Energy Requirements Operation Example 1, The Mole Fraction Method Example 2, The Molecular Mass Method Downhole Tool Types Omnidirectional Density Systems Single Spacing Sidewall Systems Mudcake Compensated Density Systems Calibrations Interference by Natural Gamma Radiation Rock Type Identification Example 3, Mineral Identification and Z/A Ratio Porosity Calculations Example 4, Porosity from Bulk Density Coal Analysis Scattered Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Neutron Porosity Logging Introduction Physical Description Operational Principles Moderation Reactions Sources Detectors Systems Now in Use Single Spacing Systems Sidewall Neutron Porosity Systems Borehole Compensated Systems Neutron Porosity Measurements Shale Correction Rock Type Corrections Borehole Corrections Cased Hole Use Calibration Data Reduction Depth of Investigation Source-Detector Spacing Interpretation Methods Chlorine Logs Neutron Activation Methods Introduction Types of Systems Isotopic Sources Neutron Generators Detector Types Action Within the Formation Material Saturation Systems Neutron Induced Gamma Ray Logs Capture Spectra Ratio Logs Uranium Systems Thermal Neutron Formation Temperature Logs Acoustic Methods - Porosity Introduction Principles Operation Principles of Downhole Acoustic Systems Tool Configurations Single Transmitter, Single Receiver Systems Multiple Receiver Systems Borehole Compensated Systems Long Spacing Acoustic Systems The Array Sonic System Log Presentation Effect of Gas and Road Noise Full Wave Systems Evaluation Porosity Determinations Mechanical Properties Effects of Clay or Shale Primary Porosity Fractured Media Porosity and Lithology Determinations Analysis of Log, Figure 19-33 Determination of Permeability from Acoustic Logs Cement Bond Logging Determination of the Shear Wave Velocity using the Stoneley Mode Formation Evaluation - Standard Methods Introduction Assumptions Methods Available Multiple Parameters Scope Research New Information Methods to be Used Analysis Methods - Standard Measurements Normalizing Data Cuttings Lag Identifying the Formation Sequence Characteristic Signatures and Values Target Zones Visual Examination Quantitative Analysis Quantitative Porosity and Saturation Reserve Calculation Rock Type Shale and Clay Content MN Crossplot The AK Crossplot The MID Plot Simultaneous Equation Method Frequency Plots Permeability k Estimated from the Resistivity Gradient k as a Function of Mineral Content Formation Fluids Formation Fluid Types Formation Fluid Distribution Formation Fluid Pressure Structural Changes Formation Rock Strength and Competence Zone Extent Redox Effects Enhancement Combinations Other Methods Index

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"fundamental knowledge and general rules of well logging are gathered and clearly presented and the reviewed book can play important role in the education of log analysts." -Jadwiga Jarzyna, Environmental Protection

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